Showing posts from March, 2023

What is the RCBO?

What is the RCBO? RCBO is basically known as residual current circuit breaker with overcurrent. And residual current circuit breaker with overcurrent is a kind of low-voltage circuit breaker. RCBOs are used to protect against earth leakage fault currents with over currents. RCBO has extra protection against overload and over current. And it mainly uses a microcontroller and it can also be called as a combination of MCCB and RCCB. That is why; It is more useful than the RRCB; Because RCCB does not provide protection against overcurrent. Some RCBO have indicators to indicate any earth fault. This feature is very useful as it helps the engineer quickly in troubleshooting.

What is the RCCB?

What is the RCCB? RCCB is basically known as residual current circuit breaker. Residual current circuit breakers are a type of low-voltage circuit breaker. RCCB is used to protect against earth leakage fault current. RCCB have small current ratings, typically up to 160A. RCCB provides protection against lightning shock. This is because the role of the RCCB is mainly to detect earth leakage and trip the circuit if detected. There is a test circuit operation to check if the RCCB is working.

What is MCCB?

What is MCCB? MCCB is basically known as Molded Case Circuit Breaker. And Molded Case Circuit Breaker is a type of low-voltage circuit breaker. MCCB are used for higher power requirements like industrial or large commercial applications. The MCCB can be used up to 2500 A. This makes it possible to use MCCB in large applications. Interruption rating of MCCB can go up to 200000 A. MCCB have various tripping functions such as continuous ampere, long time delay, short time pickup, short time delay, instantaneous pickup and ground fault pickup. These are adjustable trip functions, which means you can set trip parameters to suit your needs; Thus providing the user with more flexibility to design the circuit. MCCB is enclosed in a molding or housing of molded material and hence known as molded case circuit breaker.

What are MCBs?

What are MCBs? Basically MCB is known as miniature circuit breaker. And MCB is a type of low-voltage circuit breaker. MCBs are used for household purposes or for low power applications such as small electrical panels. MCB can be used up to 100 A only. The MCB has an interrupt rating of up to 18000 A. Class 3 MCBs are very popular these days due to their fast tripping capability and their minimal energy loss.

What are the types of circuit breakers?

What are the types of circuit breakers? Basically a type of circuit breaker  MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker) MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker) RCCB (Residual Current Circuit Breaker) RCBO (Residual Current Circuit Breaker with Overcurrent) MPCB (Motor Protection Circuit Breaker) VCB (Vacuum Circuit Breaker) SF6 (Sulphur Hexafluoride) Circuit Breaker Oil Circuit Breaker

What is Circuit Breaker?

What is Circuit Breaker? Basically, circuit breakers are an essential part of electrical circuits. It is a device that is used as a protective switch to pass the current that is checked for tripping condition. When it detects a trip condition, the circuit breaker opens its contact and isolates the input and output voltages from contact with each other. Hence, its basic function is to interrupt the current flow after the fault is detected. It stays open until the user resets the trip.

What are all aluminum conductors?

What are all aluminum conductors? Basically AAC (All Aluminum Conductor) is an electrical conductor made completely of aluminum. It can be seen as a stranded set of conductors, stacked one upon the other. Aluminum is a good conductor of electricity, and being such a bulk conductor material, AAC has the best conductivity. Also, it is extremely corrosion-resistant. But, with such a large amount of aluminum, its weight increases relative to its moderate strength and it starts to bend. Hence these types of conductors are used for shorter distances and where grid towers are close. Because, even though it will run for only a short distance, it will provide an excellent current transfer.

What are the types of overhead conductors?

What are the types of overhead conductors? Basically the most common types of overhead conductors are listed below. AAC (All Aluminum Conductor) AAAC (All Aluminum Alloy Conductor) ACSR (All Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced) ACAR (Aluminum Conductor Alloy Reinforced)

What is Overhead Cable?

What is Overhead Cable?  Basically, long lengths of electrical cables running through power distribution and transmission grids. It is seen everywhere around us. These cables bring electricity to your home. They are called overhead cables. An electrical cable consists of two parts, conductor and insulator. A conductor is a material inside that allows electricity to pass and an insulator is a material that prevents electricity from passing through it.

What are the types of switching mechanism in ATS?

What are the types of switching mechanism in ATS?  Basically, there are two types of mechanisms that work in ATS – open transition and closed transition. Free transition means break-before-make. Before changing any power supply connection, it will first open the existing connection and then connect to another one. A close transition is a make-before-break. Before breaking any power supply connection, it will first switch to the new connection and then break the previous connection.

What is Auto Changeover Switch?

What is Auto Changeover Switch? Basically you have two sources of power – primary and secondary. Earlier, when the main power supply went off, the operator himself would go and switch on the secondary power supply. This would take time, especially if it is far from a power source. To solve this problem, auto changeover switch was started to be used. As the name suggests, auto changeover switches are used to automatically switch power between primary and secondary sources. If the mains supply shuts down or fails, this switch will automatically connect the load to the secondary power supply. On resumption of mains power supply, this switch will switch the load back to mains power supply. It works in the same way as a relay. Therefore, this automatic switch acts as a very important component to provide instantaneous power supply. An auto changeover switch has a microprocessor that is programmed to control the switching of the power supply. At one end, it senses the main power supply and a

What is Transformer Bushing?

What is Transformer Bushing? Basically a transformer is a device which is used to step up or step down the voltage as per requirement. Transformers are required in power transmission and generation stages, they involve high voltages. Since the transformer works at very high voltage, it is also necessary to take care that it functions properly without any leakage or damage. Now, it is worth noting that there is one very important factor in helping the transformer to function properly; That is its bushing. Without a bushing, it is not possible to operate the transformer in any high-voltage condition (usually in KV). A bushing is an electrical insulator that allows safe passage of electrical current. It is similar to any insulator surrounding the conductor, which helps prevent any untoward incident from occurring. A transformer consists of two windings - primary and secondary (HV and LV). It makes connections to external wires to carry electricity. Even though the transformer also include

What are high beam splitter coatings?

What are high beam splitter coatings?  Basically, beam splitters are optical components that are used to split a certain amount of light into two separate beams. Splitters are classified according to how they are constructed. They can also be used to combine two different beams

What are highly reflective coatings?

What are highly reflective coatings? Originally high-reflective coatings were used to reduce light from lasers and other light sources while reflecting them. Therefore, technicians recommend that laser machines have highly reflective coating materials because the scatter of the laser beam can cause injury if the laser is pointed directly at the patient, for example, during laser eye surgery. In short, HR coatings are essential for laser machine effectiveness so that less laser power is used during application.

What are anti-reflection coatings?

What are anti-reflection coatings? Basically an anti-reflection coating, also known as an antiglare coating, is used to reduce reflections on the surface of lenses and other optical components. When reflection is reduced it improves better imaging because reflection reduces light. Therefore, instruments such as binoculars, cameras, microscopes and binoculars can use anti-reflective coatings. This is because reducing light reflection by eliminating stray light improves image contrast. An antiglare coating can also be used to eliminate reflections. For example, in the lenses of glasses, technicians can use an anti-reflective coating to ensure that the person wearing the glasses can be seen by others. Additionally, an antiglare coating can reduce the glare from the light or binoculars of a secret viewer's telescope.

What are the types of optics coating?

What are the types of optics coating? Basically optics are the most common types of coatings  Anti-reflection coatings Highly reflective coatings Filter coatings Beam splitter coatings

What is an Optical Coating?

What is an Optical Coating? Basically an optical coating is a thin layer of material that creates an interaction and effect between certain visual elements such as a lens or mirror and light. Understanding how optical coatings work requires understanding how light travels through transparent media. The layers used in this technology affect how the optic transmits light and reflects it. And the technology is useful for making glasses and camera lenses for people whose eyes are light sensitive. Materials used for this type of coating vary depending on their application. Examples of materials used for the coating include rare earth materials, oxides, and metals. Their thickness determines the effectiveness of the optics technology, the number of layers used and the difference in refractive index.

What is a through-beam sensor?

What is a through-beam sensor?  Basically in this sensor, light passes to the receiving element and this element immediately produces an electrical output. This means the transmitter and receiver will be at different ends. The sensor will give a different output when there is an object in it; And the sensor will give a different output when there is no object in it. The output can be NO or NC, and PNP or NPN.

What are PLC System Design Steps?

What are PLC System Design Steps?  PLC system design steps are: Environmental details,  Grounding and earthing,  Safety concerns networking,  Field devices and IO numbers,  Proper grouping of equipment,  Field wiring voltage level,  Program complexity and redundancy.

What is a Photoelectric Sensor?

What is a Photoelectric Sensor? A photoelectric sensor basically emits light from a transmitter, which contains a light-emitting element. The receiver at the other end will detect this light beam. When this emitted light is intercepted by any object, the intensity of the beam of light received by the receiver changes. The intensity of the light is continuously processed and converted into an electrical output. As the intensity varies, the electric output varies. This electrical output is then fed to any circuit and indicates whether or not any object has passed between the lights. This is the concept of the photoelectric sensor.

What is Buchholz Relay?

What is Buchholz Relay? Basically Buchholz relay is used to detect internal faults in oil filled transformers. And that oil is used as insulation for the transformer body. Buchholz Relay works on the principle of gas detection. Buchholz relays used in oil filled transformers are also known as safety devices.

What is Current Transformer?

What is Current Transformer? Basically a current transformer is a device that is surrounded by live phase wire in a three-phase system to measure the current flowing through it. As the name suggests, this is a type of transformer. A current transformer comes under the working analogy of a step-down transformer. A current transformer (CT) converts high voltage current flowing through its primary winding (phase wire) into low voltage current flowing through its secondary winding (internal ammeter). The meter will then automatically scale or calibrate internally to reflect the original value.

What is a transducer?

What is a transducer? Basically a transducer is a device that converts energy/signal into another form. For example, force, torque, light, speed, position etc. Conversion of differences in similar physical quantities. And specific applications are in automation, control systems, and measuring to convert physical parameters such as pressure, temperature, level, flow or the like. Brightness etc., in an electrical signal or vice versa. The term transducer is used instead of the term sensor. Transducers are defined as elements that experience relative changes when subjected to some physical change.

What is IGBT?

What is IGBT? IGBT is basically a type of transistor. And there are three main types in the transistor family – BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor), FET (Field Effect Transistor), and IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). The IGBT is a more advanced type of transistor. As a standard construction of a transistor, it too has three terminals – gate, collector and emitter. When a voltage is applied to the gate, it opens and allows a current to flow between the collector and emitter. When the voltage is removed from the gate, it closes and blocks the flow of current between the collector and the emitter. Thus, an IGBT behaves like a switch; It closes when the gate is open and current flows and when it is closed. IGBT is a combination of BJT and FET. It has the gate function of FET and low saturation voltage/output characteristics of BJT. That is why you can see it in its name too; This is a combination of both FET (IG) and BJT (BT). It is able to handle large collector-emitter currents wi

What is a wiring schedule?

What is a wiring schedule?  Basically the wiring schedule will specify the wire reference number, type, color, size and number of conductors, length and required amount of insulation stripping. And this is not a diagram but a reference to the conductors that were used for easy identification in the circuit. In complex devices, you'll also find a table of interconnections that gives the start and end reference points for each connection, as well as color, size, identification markings, and other important information.

What is a wiring diagram?

What is a wiring diagram? Basically a wiring diagram is a drawing that shows all the wiring between parts such as control or signal functions, power supply and earth connections, and unused leads and termination contacts. Also, the wiring diagram shows the interconnections between terminal posts, blocks, plugs, sockets and lead-throughs. This wiring diagram will contain details such as terminal identification numbers that enable us to wire the unit together. The parts in the wiring diagram are shown only in blocks with no indication of the size or shape of the components. But it will only show the terminal number or connection number in the component.

What is a circuit diagram?

What is a circuit diagram? Circuit diagrams basically show how electrical components are connected to each other and use symbols to represent electrical components. Lines represent the functional conductors or wires that connect them to each other. And the circuit diagram is derived from the block or functional diagram. It does not represent the exact size, shape or arrangement of the electrical components. Although you can wire up the assembly from the information in it. They usually show details of how electrical circuits work.

What is a voltmeter?

What is a voltmeter? Basically, voltmeters are standard items on switchboards and control panels. They are basically single-circuit elements so when three phases are to be indicated either three devices are used or one with a multipoint switch. A voltmeter is connected across the line and is high-impedance. The ranges of the voltmeter may be varied in series with high-value resistors; Such resistors are known as voltmeter multipliers. For high voltage, a potential transformer (PT) is connected to the main line called the primary and a voltmeter is connected to the secondary. Voltmeters are usually moving iron. Moving coil meters can also be used but in combination with rectifiers.

What is voltage?

What is voltage?  Basically voltage is also known as potential difference, electromotive force (EMF) and pressure of an electrical circuit. And it is measured with the help of voltmeter.

What is negative feedback?

What is negative feedback?  Basically in this type, the feedback signal is subtracted from the input signal in the controller. And this is the most widely used type, because of its accuracy and control in the process. Also negative feedback, which tries to reduce error by bringing input and output closer together

What is positive feedback?

What is positive feedback?  Basically in this type, a feedback signal is added with the input signal in the controller. And it has less control over error.