Showing posts from 2023

What is Transformer Bushing?

What is Transformer Bushing? Basically a transformer is a device which is used to step up or step down the voltage as per requirement. Transformers are required in power transmission and generation stages, they involve high voltages. Since the transformer works at very high voltage, it is also necessary to take care that it functions properly without any leakage or damage. Now, it is worth noting that there is one very important factor in helping the transformer to function properly; That is its bushing. Without a bushing, it is not possible to operate the transformer in any high-voltage condition (usually in KV). A bushing is an electrical insulator that allows safe passage of electrical current. It is similar to any insulator surrounding the conductor, which helps prevent any untoward incident from occurring. A transformer consists of two windings - primary and secondary (HV and LV). It makes connections to external wires to carry electricity. Even though the transformer also include

What are high beam splitter coatings?

What are high beam splitter coatings?  Basically, beam splitters are optical components that are used to split a certain amount of light into two separate beams. Splitters are classified according to how they are constructed. They can also be used to combine two different beams

What are highly reflective coatings?

What are highly reflective coatings? Originally high-reflective coatings were used to reduce light from lasers and other light sources while reflecting them. Therefore, technicians recommend that laser machines have highly reflective coating materials because the scatter of the laser beam can cause injury if the laser is pointed directly at the patient, for example, during laser eye surgery. In short, HR coatings are essential for laser machine effectiveness so that less laser power is used during application.

What are anti-reflection coatings?

What are anti-reflection coatings? Basically an anti-reflection coating, also known as an antiglare coating, is used to reduce reflections on the surface of lenses and other optical components. When reflection is reduced it improves better imaging because reflection reduces light. Therefore, instruments such as binoculars, cameras, microscopes and binoculars can use anti-reflective coatings. This is because reducing light reflection by eliminating stray light improves image contrast. An antiglare coating can also be used to eliminate reflections. For example, in the lenses of glasses, technicians can use an anti-reflective coating to ensure that the person wearing the glasses can be seen by others. Additionally, an antiglare coating can reduce the glare from the light or binoculars of a secret viewer's telescope.

What are the types of optics coating?

What are the types of optics coating? Basically optics are the most common types of coatings  Anti-reflection coatings Highly reflective coatings Filter coatings Beam splitter coatings

What is an Optical Coating?

What is an Optical Coating? Basically an optical coating is a thin layer of material that creates an interaction and effect between certain visual elements such as a lens or mirror and light. Understanding how optical coatings work requires understanding how light travels through transparent media. The layers used in this technology affect how the optic transmits light and reflects it. And the technology is useful for making glasses and camera lenses for people whose eyes are light sensitive. Materials used for this type of coating vary depending on their application. Examples of materials used for the coating include rare earth materials, oxides, and metals. Their thickness determines the effectiveness of the optics technology, the number of layers used and the difference in refractive index.

What is a through-beam sensor?

What is a through-beam sensor?  Basically in this sensor, light passes to the receiving element and this element immediately produces an electrical output. This means the transmitter and receiver will be at different ends. The sensor will give a different output when there is an object in it; And the sensor will give a different output when there is no object in it. The output can be NO or NC, and PNP or NPN.

What are PLC System Design Steps?

What are PLC System Design Steps?  PLC system design steps are: Environmental details,  Grounding and earthing,  Safety concerns networking,  Field devices and IO numbers,  Proper grouping of equipment,  Field wiring voltage level,  Program complexity and redundancy.

What is a Photoelectric Sensor?

What is a Photoelectric Sensor? A photoelectric sensor basically emits light from a transmitter, which contains a light-emitting element. The receiver at the other end will detect this light beam. When this emitted light is intercepted by any object, the intensity of the beam of light received by the receiver changes. The intensity of the light is continuously processed and converted into an electrical output. As the intensity varies, the electric output varies. This electrical output is then fed to any circuit and indicates whether or not any object has passed between the lights. This is the concept of the photoelectric sensor.

What is Buchholz Relay?

What is Buchholz Relay? Basically Buchholz relay is used to detect internal faults in oil filled transformers. And that oil is used as insulation for the transformer body. Buchholz Relay works on the principle of gas detection. Buchholz relays used in oil filled transformers are also known as safety devices.

What is Current Transformer?

What is Current Transformer? Basically a current transformer is a device that is surrounded by live phase wire in a three-phase system to measure the current flowing through it. As the name suggests, this is a type of transformer. A current transformer comes under the working analogy of a step-down transformer. A current transformer (CT) converts high voltage current flowing through its primary winding (phase wire) into low voltage current flowing through its secondary winding (internal ammeter). The meter will then automatically scale or calibrate internally to reflect the original value.

What is a transducer?

What is a transducer? Basically a transducer is a device that converts energy/signal into another form. For example, force, torque, light, speed, position etc. Conversion of differences in similar physical quantities. And specific applications are in automation, control systems, and measuring to convert physical parameters such as pressure, temperature, level, flow or the like. Brightness etc., in an electrical signal or vice versa. The term transducer is used instead of the term sensor. Transducers are defined as elements that experience relative changes when subjected to some physical change.

What is IGBT?

What is IGBT? IGBT is basically a type of transistor. And there are three main types in the transistor family – BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor), FET (Field Effect Transistor), and IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). The IGBT is a more advanced type of transistor. As a standard construction of a transistor, it too has three terminals – gate, collector and emitter. When a voltage is applied to the gate, it opens and allows a current to flow between the collector and emitter. When the voltage is removed from the gate, it closes and blocks the flow of current between the collector and the emitter. Thus, an IGBT behaves like a switch; It closes when the gate is open and current flows and when it is closed. IGBT is a combination of BJT and FET. It has the gate function of FET and low saturation voltage/output characteristics of BJT. That is why you can see it in its name too; This is a combination of both FET (IG) and BJT (BT). It is able to handle large collector-emitter currents wi

What is a wiring schedule?

What is a wiring schedule?  Basically the wiring schedule will specify the wire reference number, type, color, size and number of conductors, length and required amount of insulation stripping. And this is not a diagram but a reference to the conductors that were used for easy identification in the circuit. In complex devices, you'll also find a table of interconnections that gives the start and end reference points for each connection, as well as color, size, identification markings, and other important information.

What is a wiring diagram?

What is a wiring diagram? Basically a wiring diagram is a drawing that shows all the wiring between parts such as control or signal functions, power supply and earth connections, and unused leads and termination contacts. Also, the wiring diagram shows the interconnections between terminal posts, blocks, plugs, sockets and lead-throughs. This wiring diagram will contain details such as terminal identification numbers that enable us to wire the unit together. The parts in the wiring diagram are shown only in blocks with no indication of the size or shape of the components. But it will only show the terminal number or connection number in the component.

What is a circuit diagram?

What is a circuit diagram? Circuit diagrams basically show how electrical components are connected to each other and use symbols to represent electrical components. Lines represent the functional conductors or wires that connect them to each other. And the circuit diagram is derived from the block or functional diagram. It does not represent the exact size, shape or arrangement of the electrical components. Although you can wire up the assembly from the information in it. They usually show details of how electrical circuits work.

What is a voltmeter?

What is a voltmeter? Basically, voltmeters are standard items on switchboards and control panels. They are basically single-circuit elements so when three phases are to be indicated either three devices are used or one with a multipoint switch. A voltmeter is connected across the line and is high-impedance. The ranges of the voltmeter may be varied in series with high-value resistors; Such resistors are known as voltmeter multipliers. For high voltage, a potential transformer (PT) is connected to the main line called the primary and a voltmeter is connected to the secondary. Voltmeters are usually moving iron. Moving coil meters can also be used but in combination with rectifiers.

What is voltage?

What is voltage?  Basically voltage is also known as potential difference, electromotive force (EMF) and pressure of an electrical circuit. And it is measured with the help of voltmeter.

What is negative feedback?

What is negative feedback?  Basically in this type, the feedback signal is subtracted from the input signal in the controller. And this is the most widely used type, because of its accuracy and control in the process. Also negative feedback, which tries to reduce error by bringing input and output closer together

What is positive feedback?

What is positive feedback?  Basically in this type, a feedback signal is added with the input signal in the controller. And it has less control over error.

What is feedback control system?

What is feedback control system? Basically a feedback control system consists of five components - input (set value), output (process variable), controlling process, sensing devices and actuating / control devices.

What is a ruptured disc?

What is a ruptured disc? Basically the rupture disc is a device used to prevent the vessel from breaking due to increased pressure. It consists of a thin metal diaphragm that explodes when the vessel's pressure rises. Rupture discs are usually designed to reduce to 1.5 times the vessel's maximum allowable working pressure. A disc assembly consists of a thin, circular membrane usually made of metal, plastic, or graphite that is firmly clamped into a disc holder. It works on the pressure relief principle. Rupture discs are actuated by inlet static pressure and are designed to function by bursting a pressure-loaded disc. The disc may be made of metal or carbon graphite and placed in a suitable holder..

What is Current Transformer?

What is Current Transformer? Basically a current transformer is a device which is directly surrounded by phase wire in three-phase system, to measure the current flowing through it. As the name suggests, this is a type of transformer. A current transformer comes under the working similarity of a step-down transformer. A current transformer (CT) converts a high voltage current flowing through its primary winding (phase wire) into a low voltage current flowing through its secondary winding (internal ammeter). The meter will then automatically scale or calibrate internally to reflect the original value.

What is Bus-Coupler?

What is Bus-Coupler? A bus-coupler is basically a component that connects several bus bars together. And it has two uses. The bus coupler can be used to supply from the first bus bar by default. If it fails, it will disconnect from the first one and take supply from the second one. Here, the load will remain disconnected for a while. In this case, two bus bars will be isolated from each other by a bus coupler. And the bus coupler will connect both bus bars simultaneously. In case of failure of the first bus bar, the load is connected through the second bus bar. It will not stop the current even for a second. Thus, in any case, you can see that a bus coupler is used to combine multiple bus bars. So, the concept of bus coupler is simple. It can either be used to connect multiple bus bars at once or to connect them only one at a time; It depends on the current usage and how long the load can withstand the power outage.

What is a bus bar?

What is a bus bar? Basically a bus bar can be known as a group of conductor plates (three phases of R, Y, and B) which receives the main incoming power and distributes it to various outgoing requirements. The main incoming three-phase supply is fed to three plates of conductors. From these plates, various other smaller plates are distributed to panels or feeders which require three phase supply. It happens that you get a uniform connection and avoid a large connection to the main generator. You have only one incoming supply and can have multiple outgoing connections to the various feeders you need the supply.

What is relative humidity?

What is relative humidity?  Relative basically means relating to something. It is the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere and how much water vapor the air can hold at that particular temperature. And this is the percentage of moisture in the air. But this relationship can be observed only in a certain range of temperature.

What is absolute humidity?

What is absolute humidity?  Basically absolute means real value. And it is the amount of water present in a given mass of air at a given temperature. Absolute humidity (AH) is obtained from the following simple formula.  AH = water vapor/air ratio.

What is hydrostatic pressure ?

What is hydrostatic pressure ? Essentially, hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to the depth of the fluid, while absolute pressure is the hydrostatic pressure combined with the atmospheric pressure. Thus, hydrostatic pressure is not atmospheric pressure but absolute pressure.

What is a proportional valve?

What is a proportional valve? Basically defines a valve with a spool in a proportional body design. And it is a continuously variable, electrically modulated, directional control valve with more than 3% center overlap. The function of a proportional valve is to produce a smooth and continuous variation in flow or pressure proportional to the electrical input signal. Connecting the electronics to these valves must be done accurately. These valves allow infinite spool positions and result in infinitely adjustable flow volumes. Infinite spool positioning can be achieved using stroke-controlled actuators that use pneumatic cylinders with proportional valves and solenoids to control the direction and speed of motion. In the hydraulic industry, the term proportional valve refers to a specific type of valve that is very specific to a servo valve. Variable positioning of the valve allows spool design with metering notches for flow control, speed control as well as directional control in one va

What is a Servo Valve?

What is a Servo Valve? A servo valve essentially defines a valve design with a bushing spool assembly that has high-precision metering edges. And basically, the name servo valve is related to the word servomechanism, which means that the valve is constantly monitored to control its movement. The name proportional describes any action where only one parameter varies somewhat in relation to the other. It is a continuously variable, electrically modulated, directional control valve with less than 3% center overlap. Servo valves are used in conjunction with closed-loop systems and advanced electronics. Servo valves operate with greater accuracy, very high repeatability, minimal hysteresis and high-frequency response. But servo valves are more expensive. A servo valve or pressure control valve is generally used to control the pressure in a circuit through a directional valve in some cases. A load cell or pressure transducer detects the force or torque. A servo amplifier analyzes the feedbac

What is a rotary pump?

What is a rotary pump?  Essentially a circulating pump will continuously transfer hot water in the loop while it is running. It simply takes water and discharges it at high pressure to the required points, and returns it to the line system for proper circulation. A pump has inlet and outlet openings. Both of these are in the same line with each other.  

What are the types of submersible pumps?

What are the types of submersible pumps?  Types of submersible pumps is Deep well pump  Bottom suction pump  Stainless steel pump  Oil filled pump  Submersible utility pumps  Water cooler pump  Mixed and axial flow pumps

What is electric field?

What is electric field?  Basically in an atom protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged. And each conducting atom has an electric field around it. This is due to the presence of these two factors. It is positively charged while negative charge is withdrawn. So, it can also be defined as the force around an electrically charged particle.

What is a submersible pump?

What is a submersible pump? Basically it is a type of centrifugal pump. Instead of pulling water like normal cases, a submersible pump pushes water. It consists of a hermetically sealed motor attached to the pump body which helps in pushing the liquid to the surface. The impeller plates used in this pump are of backward curved type, which helps in pushing the water with great force. Its motor converts rotary motion into kinetic energy, and diffuser blades convert this kinetic energy into pressure energy.

What is magnetic field?

What is magnetic field? A magnet basically has two poles and they are north and south. A magnet either attracts or repels. Also, if the north pole is placed around the south pole, it will attract and if the north pole is placed around the north pole, it will be repelled. The region around the magnet where the poles either attract or repel is called the magnetic field. Basically, in a magnet, the magnetic field is created either naturally as discussed earlier or also by a passing current. When an electric charge moves in space or on a conductor, its motion induces a magnetic field. Therefore, whenever a metallic object such as iron comes within the range of this magnetic field, the magnet will attract the iron towards it.

What is a pilot or air operated valve?

What is a pilot or air operated valve?  A pilot valve is basically the same as a solenoid valve, however, instead of an electric signal, an air pressure signal will be used to open or close the spool.

What are the benefits of smart sensors?

What are the benefits of smart sensors? Advantages of smart sensors is  Improve process performance Minimize maintenance by predicting equipment failure Log data for historic records and regulatory compliance Notify of anomalies that affect process quality Self-Test, Self-Calibration and Self-Diagnosis Multi-sensing capabilities High accuracy Improve processing performance

What are the different types of smart sensors?

What are the different types of smart sensors?  There are basically five main types of smart sensors used in industrial automation. And they are  Level sensors  Temperature sensors  Pressure sensors  Infrared sensors  Proximity sensors

How Smart Sensors Work?

How Smart Sensors Work? Basically, a smart sensor consists of 5 basic components which are the base sensor, power supply, microprocessor, memory and communication module. A base sensor is a common sensor responsible for detecting physical quantities. A power supply is to supply power to the computing resource and perhaps to the sensor base. A microprocessor is a computing component, which enables the sensor to perform some data calculations in order to measure quantities and take action based on these analyses. Memory is dedicated to storing measured values and calculated data, and also stores the software logic that controls how the sensor handles this data. The communication module is the one that transmits and receives data between sensors and external devices over the same network or the Internet. Essentially a raw base sensor used to provide sensing capability, it is designed to measure physical quantities and produce analog signals. These analog signals need to be processed befor

What is Smart Sensor?

What is Smart Sensor? Basically, a smart sensor is a device that can measure a physical quantity and give an output related to the measured value just like a normal sensor, but it also has the ability to analyze some data from this measured quantity using built-in computing resources and use this data to take some action to increase the efficiency of the automation process. Use it. And smart sensors can also provide more accurate measurements, thanks to built-in computing resources that filter out any signal noise and convert the measured signal into a usable digital form without the need for transducers like normal sensors. Smart sensors have built-in communication capabilities that enable them to transmit data over the Internet or similar networks and give them the ability to communicate with external devices, which is the main reason why smart sensors are such important components in the Internet of Things.

What is Normal Sensor?

What is Normal Sensor? Basically a normal sensor is a device capable of sensing physical quantities like temperature, pressure, flow etc. and gives an output correlated to that quantity. And this output can either be an on/off signal, i.e., a switching signal, such as a proximity sensor, or it can be an analog representation of a continuously measured physical quantity, usually in the form of millivolts or some change in resistance value, such as thermocouples or pressure sensors. A common sensor by itself will not be sufficient to be able to use this measured value in an automation system. Instead, a transducer is introduced to enable converting these measured millivolts or resistance into a usable format such as 4 to 20 mA. Then you will need a computing capability like a PLC to use these measured values in some calculations and actions for automation processes.

What is a controller?

What is a controller? Basically the controller is used to control the entire process by getting the feedback from the sensors and modulating the actuators accordingly. And the actuators work automatically by receiving commands from the controller. The most popular type of controller is the PLC. 

What is an Actuator?

What is an Actuator? Basically the actuator follows the sensor feedback and let's say you are controlling the process temperature. For example, room temperature should be maintained using chilled water. In this case, an actuator would be a modulating valve to control the flow of cooling water supply. But, real room temperature feedback will be taken by the sensor. Based on the feedback, the valve will open or close accordingly to maintain the process. Includes actuators such as valves, heaters and drives.

What is Quick Exhaust Valve (QEV)?

What is Quick Exhaust Valve (QEV)?  Essentially, the quick exhaust valve is a three-way valve that operates primarily on the differential pressure between the inlet and outlet ports. And this valve finds application where a fast stroke time is required or where air needs to be exhausted quickly from the cylinder. Quick exhaust valves are widely used in actuators and pneumatic cylinders for quick exhaust and stroking applications.

What are the benefits of HMI?

What are the benefits of HMI? Basically the benefits of HMI are  Enhanced visibility Increased functionality Reduced downtime Enhanced visibility With the ability to display all the important data related to your process in a single dashboard, the HMI gives operators enhanced visibility into their processes at all times. It helps improve productivity. Increased functionality Because the HMI provides real-time data of your process, operators can use this data to monitor production and adjust process parameters in real-time to meet changing demand. Data captured from HMI can be analyzed to help identify areas of improvement for your processes. Reduced downtime With the alarms and alerts provided by the HMI, operators can better monitor their process performance and respond quickly to failures reducing downtime. Also analyzing the data provided by the HMI can help identify areas where future problems may occur and take appropriate action.

What is HMI?

What is HMI? Basically HMI stands for Human-Machine Interface. And it is simply a device that allows communication and data exchange between a user or operator and a machine or process. Most often an HMI is a touch screen but a simple keypad that gives orders to a process is also an HMI, the main concept being that with an HMI you can either give instructions to the process, get information about the process, or both. And HMI basically has two types Keypad HMI and Touchscreen HMI. Also HMI is widely used in industries but you can also find HMI everywhere around you, simple example of HMI is ATM and ATM is the HMI you use to withdraw your money. In industrial applications, the major functions of HMI are real-time information exchange between operators and production processes. HMI screens display data, provide visual feedback, and execute operational commands through input devices such as touch screens and keyboards.

What is the Sequential Function Chart (SFC) PLC programming language?

What is the Sequential Function Chart (SFC) PLC programming language? Basically Sequential Function Chart (SFC) is another PLC programming language that uses graphical blocks for logic, but in SFC each block is called a step and your code will continue to execute the instructions within it until the transition condition is met. Allows logic to proceed to the next step. This concept is similar to a flow chart, hence the word chart in SFC. The decision to move to the next step of your SFC logic can be based on timing, a particular step in the process, or the physical state of the equipment. Unlike traditional flow charts, SFCs can have multiple paths (branches), and you can use branches to execute multiple steps at once. Some advantages of Sequential Function Charts are useful for large processes you can break down into major steps, easy online debugging, you can see exactly at which point your logic stopped, much faster to design your process. And some of the disadvantages of sequential

What is the Instruction List (IL) PLC programming language?

What is the Instruction List (IL) PLC programming language? Basically an Instruction List (IL) is another textual language that you can use to program your PLC, as the name suggests; You can write your reasoning in this language as a list of instructions. Each command is written on a new line. IL is a low-level language and resembles assembly. You can add any comments you want at the end of each one. Some of the advantages of Instruction List (IL) are very useful for compact code, very useful for time-critical code, very fast and consumes less memory. Some of the disadvantages of instruction lists (IL) are that they are slightly more limited in terms of structuring code, are more difficult to debug and resolve errors, are more prone to run-time errors, and can lead to infinite loops.

What is Structured List (ST) PLC Programming Language?

What is Structured List (ST) PLC Programming Language? Basically Structured List (ST) is a high-level programming language like Basic, Pascal and C. It is very powerful and well suited for complex mathematical functions and data analysis tasks. And Structured List is a text-based language, so you have to write each line of code. The ST uses functions such as IF, WHILE, FOR, and CASE. Some of the advantages of Structured List are that it is suitable for complex logic and data handling tasks, very organized and good for large mathematical calculations, more flexible than ladder logic. And some disadvantages of structured lists are that the syntax can be difficult if not familiar with high-level languages like C, difficult to debug and edit online.

What is an optical pyrometer?

What is an optical pyrometer? Optical pyrometer are basically used to measure the temperature of luminous objects visible to the naked eye. And it works on the principle of matching the brightness of an object to the brightness of a filament placed inside a pyrometer. An optical pyrometer has two parts, an optical system and a detector. They can be used to measure the temperature of furnaces, molten metal and other superheated substances or liquids.

What is Radiation Pyrometer?

What is Radiation Pyrometer?  Basically, a radiation pyrometer detects heat radiation from a target hot object and reads and records its temperature according to the radiation intensity. They are suitable for measuring temperatures in excess of 1200oC. There are two types of radiation pyrometers available, fixed focus type radiation pyrometer and variable focus type radiation pyrometer.

What is a Non-Contact Type Temperature Transducer?

What is a Non-Contact Type Temperature Transducer? Basically in non-contact type the temperature transducer sensor is not in direct contact with the substance. And the working principle behind non contact type temperature transducer is “every object with temperature above absolute zero (0 °K) emits infrared thermal energy”. They measure the temperature by sensing the thermal energy, infrared energy emitted by the object whose temperature is being measured. Non contact type temperature transducer has an optical system to collect the energy emitted by the target, the detector converts this energy into electrical signal. This is the preferred technique for small, moving, inaccessible items. A non-contact temperature gauge is also called a pyrometer. There are three types of pyrometers, radiation pyrometers, thermal imagers, and optical pyrometers.

What types of devices provide analog signals?

What types of devices provide analog signals?  Basically devices like control valve, PT, LT, TT, %LEL, O2, load cell provide analog signal.

What are the different types of flow meters?

What are the different types of flow meters? Differential pressure (DP) flow meter Velocity flowmeter Positive displacement flowmeter Mass flowmeter Differential pressure (DP) flow meter Examples of DP flow meters are orifice plate, venturi meter, flow nozzle, rotameter. Velocity flowmeter Examples of velocity flow meters are electromagnetic flowmeter, ultrasonic flowmeter, turbine flowmeter, paddlewheel flow meter. Positive displacement flowmeter Examples of PD flow meters are nutting disc, rotary vane, gear, diaphragm flowmeter. Mass flowmeter Examples of mass flow meters are Coriolis flow meters, thermal dispersion meters

What is Wire Wound RTD?

What is Wire Wound RTD?  Basically wire wound RTD are made using a small diameter wire, usually platinum, that is either wrapped in a coil and packed inside a ceramic mandrel, or around the outside of a ceramic housing. is wrapped and coated with an insulating material. They provide high accuracy for large temperature range.

What is PTC thermistor?

What is PTC thermistor?   Basically PTC is known as Positive Temperature Coefficient. And in PTC, when the temperature increases, the resistance of the thermistor also increases. And when the temperature decreases, the resistance also decreases

What is NTC thermistor?

What is NTC thermistor?  Basically NTC thermistor is known as negative temperature coefficient. And NTC thermistor works as the temperature rises, the resistance of the thermistor will decrease. And when the temperature is low the resistance will increase.

What is thermistors?

What is thermistors?  Basically thermistor is also called thermal resistor. And thermistors work on the principle that as the temperature of a resistive material changes, its resistance will also change. Although the resistance of all resistors changes slightly with the change in temperature. But thermistors are designed to be sensitive to temperature changes. They are widely used in temperature measurement because they are cheap and robust methods of temperature measurement. The thermistor has a temperature measurement range of -55°C to +115°C.

What is a contact type temperature transducer?

What is a contact type temperature transducer?  Basically the contact type temperature transducer is in direct contact with the process whose temperature is being measured. And there are four contact type temperature transduced is Thermistors, resistance thermometers or resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermocouples, integrated circuit temperature transducers.

What are the advantages of IC temperature sensor?

What are the advantages of IC temperature sensor?  Basically the output of the IC temperature sensor is linear. IC sensors are very small in size. No additional circuit is required for the IC sensor. Very accurate temperature measurement. The cost is comparatively less. The IC sensor can be easily integrated with other microcontrollers

What is the IC DS18S20 temperature sensor?

What is the IC DS18S20 temperature sensor?  Basically it produces a digital output corresponding to the temperature. It can measure temperature from -55°C to 125°C. The accuracy of IC DS18S20 ±0.5°C..

What is IC AD 590 temperature sensor?

What is IC AD 590 temperature sensor? Basically it is a 2 terminal IC temperature sensor which produces a current output. And this output of AD 590 is 1 µA/K. Its output is also linear. The AD 590 has a range of -55°C to +150°C. Supply voltage between 4V to 30V.

What is IC LM 35 temperature sensor?

What is IC LM 35 temperature sensor? Basically the output of this sensor is voltage. And the main advantage of this sensor is that it is calibrated directly to Celsius. This sensor output is also linear. It requires an analog to digital converter to interface with microcontrollers or microprocessors. The sensitivity of the LM 35 is 10 mV/°C. LM 35 has a range of -55°C to 150°C

What is a transducer type IC temperature sensor?

What is a transducer type IC temperature sensor?  Basically it is characterized by small size, low thermal mass and fast response time. It is suitable for circuit boards for temperature monitoring and control. They are also used by computers to control CPU temperature

What is immersion type IC temperature sensor?

What is immersion type IC temperature sensor?  Basically it consists of an IC temperature probe with a solid state sensor inside a metal tube. The wall of the tube will act as a sheath for the probe. The commonly used sheath is stainless steel. Applications include automotive/industrial engine oil temperature measurement, air intake temperature monitoring, etc.

What is absolute humidity?

What is absolute humidity? Basically absolute means real value. It is the amount of water contained in a given mass of air at a given temperature. This means you can accurately detect the humidity in the air. Air density is an important criterion for determining absolute humidity. Absolute humidity (AH) is mathematically defined as AH = water vapor/air ratio.

What is a Shell Type Transformer?

What is a Shell Type Transformer? Basically a shell type transformer is one in which the core of the transformer surrounds the windings. And in this type of transformer, the core surrounds the primary and secondary windings. Therefore, they are called shell type transformers. Both the windings are wound on the central limb of the core. As you can see, the circuit has two flux paths. The central organ carries the entire magnetic flux; and the other two side limbs carry half of the flow. HV and LV winding mounting is same as discussed earlier in core type transformer. In the second image below, the red winding is the primary and the green winding is the secondary.

What is a core type transformer?

What is a core type transformer? Basically a core type transformer is one in which primary and secondary windings surround the transformer core. And transformers have two types of windings basically primary and secondary. The voltage is transferred from the primary to the secondary winding through the magnetic flux. And the core is the layer of metal that conducts the magnetic field and can also be called the main body of the transformer. So, in this type of transformer, windings surround the core. Hence, they are called core type transformers. The part which is twisted is also known as the limb. Both the windings are mounted on separate limbs of the core. And core type transformers have only single flux path in the circuit. Also, it is worth noting that there are two types of windings on each of the primary and secondary - low voltage (LV) and high voltage (HV). In the image below, green color is LV winding and red color is HV winding. The LV winding is placed near the core and the HV

How does solar energy work?

How does solar energy work? Frame, glass, front adhesive film, solar cell, back adhesive film, back sheet and junction box are the primary components of a complete panel. The main component here is the solar cell. It is also known as photovoltaic cell. When solar energy hits it, it generates electricity; This is called Photovoltaic Effect. This single cell is not enough to generate a lot of power. So, many cells are used together to form a panel. Additional layers of glass and adhesive act as protection for the solar cells. Solar cells are made of silicon. It is basically a semiconductor that is the cause of electricity generation. A solar cell is made up of two silicon layers. There is a positive charging layer called the p-type layer and the other is a negative charging layer called the n-type layer. The n-type layer can donate electrons and this layer resists light. The p-type layer can accept electrons and since they gain extra electrons, the area created for such electrons is call

What are transparent solar panels?

What are transparent solar panels? Basically, conventional solar energy conversion uses common solar panels (solar photovoltaic panels). However, transparent solar panels use plain glass as the panel. And since glass is transparent, it is coated and made with special materials to allow the photovoltaic effect to pass through. This keeps the glass transparent and converts solar energy into electricity. So, you can imagine that every piece of glass, from window frames to automobile windows, can be used as solar panels. Therefore, no additional land space or roof is required to install solar panels. A building with this type of glass windows will generate electricity automatically. So, you can literally turn any sheet of glass or window into a photovoltaic cell. All light is made up of electromagnetic radiation spread across a spectrum of wavelengths, each containing energy that can potentially be extracted by a solar cell. However, the human eye can detect only a fraction of the waveleng

What are digital instruments?

What are digital instruments?  Basically digital measuring instruments show the measured value in digital form which will be number along with its unit. And it is much easier to read compared to analog devices. One can easily measure and note the measured value by these digital devices as it will indicate the measured value in numerical form. They can give readings to one or more decimal places. There will be no human error in this type of equipment as it will show the value as calculated from the function. Hence the measured value will be more accurate as compared to analog instrument.

What are Analog Instruments?

What are Analog Instruments? Basically, analog instruments represent the magnitude of a quantity as a moving indicator. We want to measure readings from such instruments because there are certain marks on the scale. and they represent whole number values even though the markings in the instrument may give readings to one or two decimal places. Although we can calculate to two decimal places, it is not accurate or completely correct. We cannot get a completely accurate value in this range every time because some human errors may occur.

What is a measuring device?

What is a measuring device? Basically an instrument used to measure a specific physical quantity is called a measuring instrument. And measuring instruments are used in our daily life to measure various quantities like length, weight, temperature, pressure, current, voltage etc. Instruments represent the value of physical quantities, through which we make certain understandings and process certain activities and decisions. . The main purpose of this measuring instrument is to measure a physical variable in its units, display the variable in its units, and record the value in its units.

What is a chiller?

What is a chiller? A chiller is basically a central means of heat exchange between inside and outside the building. A chiller performs two basic functions: to cool the air in the building and to provide dehumidification. Water enters the evaporator and condenser via external piping. The piping inside the tubing is surrounded by a chiller medium, which is a compressible gas such as Freon. As water circulates in the tubing, heat is transferred between the water and the chiller medium. The chiller comes in two stages of media pressure. First, the medium is fed to the condenser at high pressure by a compressor. When a medium is compressed, its temperature rises. The chiller medium then leaves the condenser through an expansion device that depressurizes the medium suddenly before entering the evaporator. When a medium expands in this way, its temperature decreases. The pressure change between these two phases is the key to the cooling provided by the chiller. Heat is removed from the air in

What are Dehumidifiers?

What are Dehumidifiers? Basically warm air has more humidity than cold air. The higher the humidity in the air, the lower the rate of evaporation of sweat. Since sweat evaporation is an important mechanism for cooling the human body, high humidity increases discomfort in warm weather. Good HVAC systems not only cool the building but also remove excess humidity. Condensation dehumidification is a process used to remove excess moisture from the air in HVAC systems. When warm, moist air passes over a cooling coil, its temperature drops to the point where the air can no longer hold all the moisture it contains. The moisture then condenses in the form of droplets on the coil which can be drained. Typically this is accomplished by coils that use chilled water to cool the building, and condensation is removed as these coils are formed.

What is a HVAC system?

What is a HVAC system? HVAC basically stands for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning. And it is a kind of automation system used to handle the air quality and thermal comfort given to the human environment for living. It is based on thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Just like the various types of automation systems, HVAC is also a type of automation system. It is an important part while erecting high-rise buildings, commercial complexes, industrial units, hospitals, parking units, hotels, etc., where air quality and thermal parameters need to be maintained so that the surrounding employees can live comfortably.

What is the relationship between electric current and voltage?

What is the relationship between electric current and voltage? Basically voltage is directly proportional to current (V = I * R) but in case of continuous power sourcing we find that any change in the amount of supplied current affects the supplied voltage. This means that if a transformer is supplying constant power (P) to an electrical system, changing the electrical load (motors, actuators) will affect the supplied voltage (P = V * I). So, in case of high load, we get system voltage drop and in case of low load, system voltage increases as P = V*I.

What is Flue Gas?

What is Flue Gas? Essentially flue gas is the gas emitted from the combustion process in a power plant, flue gases come in many different forms that enter the atmosphere through flue ducts and chimney openings that enable the gases to travel from the source to the local environment.

What is Centrifugal Machine?

What is Centrifugal Machine? Basically, a centrifugal machine consists of a cylindrical stainless steel basket. The basket is mounted on a fine circular rod with perforated sides lined with wire cloth and metal sheet with 400 to 600 holes per square inch. And the speed of centrifugal machine is 1500 to 2100 RPM. A centrifuge machine works on the principle of sedimentation. which is influenced by the force of gravity. Materials are separated based on their density. Different methods of separation include isopycnic, ultra-filtration, density gradient, phase separation and pelleting.