## Posts

Showing posts from January, 2023

### What is Structured List (ST) PLC Programming Language?

What is Structured List (ST) PLC Programming Language? Basically Structured List (ST) is a high-level programming language like Basic, Pascal and C. It is very powerful and well suited for complex mathematical functions and data analysis tasks. And Structured List is a text-based language, so you have to write each line of code. The ST uses functions such as IF, WHILE, FOR, and CASE. Some of the advantages of Structured List are that it is suitable for complex logic and data handling tasks, very organized and good for large mathematical calculations, more flexible than ladder logic. And some disadvantages of structured lists are that the syntax can be difficult if not familiar with high-level languages like C, difficult to debug and edit online.

### What is an optical pyrometer?

What is an optical pyrometer? Optical pyrometer are basically used to measure the temperature of luminous objects visible to the naked eye. And it works on the principle of matching the brightness of an object to the brightness of a filament placed inside a pyrometer. An optical pyrometer has two parts, an optical system and a detector. They can be used to measure the temperature of furnaces, molten metal and other superheated substances or liquids.

What is Radiation Pyrometer?  Basically, a radiation pyrometer detects heat radiation from a target hot object and reads and records its temperature according to the radiation intensity. They are suitable for measuring temperatures in excess of 1200oC. There are two types of radiation pyrometers available, fixed focus type radiation pyrometer and variable focus type radiation pyrometer.

### What is a Non-Contact Type Temperature Transducer?

What is a Non-Contact Type Temperature Transducer? Basically in non-contact type the temperature transducer sensor is not in direct contact with the substance. And the working principle behind non contact type temperature transducer is “every object with temperature above absolute zero (0 °K) emits infrared thermal energy”. They measure the temperature by sensing the thermal energy, infrared energy emitted by the object whose temperature is being measured. Non contact type temperature transducer has an optical system to collect the energy emitted by the target, the detector converts this energy into electrical signal. This is the preferred technique for small, moving, inaccessible items. A non-contact temperature gauge is also called a pyrometer. There are three types of pyrometers, radiation pyrometers, thermal imagers, and optical pyrometers.

### What types of devices provide analog signals?

What types of devices provide analog signals?  Basically devices like control valve, PT, LT, TT, %LEL, O2, load cell provide analog signal.

### What are the different types of flow meters?

What are the different types of flow meters? Differential pressure (DP) flow meter Velocity flowmeter Positive displacement flowmeter Mass flowmeter Differential pressure (DP) flow meter Examples of DP flow meters are orifice plate, venturi meter, flow nozzle, rotameter. Velocity flowmeter Examples of velocity flow meters are electromagnetic flowmeter, ultrasonic flowmeter, turbine flowmeter, paddlewheel flow meter. Positive displacement flowmeter Examples of PD flow meters are nutting disc, rotary vane, gear, diaphragm flowmeter. Mass flowmeter Examples of mass flow meters are Coriolis flow meters, thermal dispersion meters

### What is Wire Wound RTD?

What is Wire Wound RTD?  Basically wire wound RTD are made using a small diameter wire, usually platinum, that is either wrapped in a coil and packed inside a ceramic mandrel, or around the outside of a ceramic housing. is wrapped and coated with an insulating material. They provide high accuracy for large temperature range.

### What is PTC thermistor?

What is PTC thermistor?   Basically PTC is known as Positive Temperature Coefficient. And in PTC, when the temperature increases, the resistance of the thermistor also increases. And when the temperature decreases, the resistance also decreases

### What is NTC thermistor?

What is NTC thermistor?  Basically NTC thermistor is known as negative temperature coefficient. And NTC thermistor works as the temperature rises, the resistance of the thermistor will decrease. And when the temperature is low the resistance will increase.

### What is thermistors?

What is thermistors?  Basically thermistor is also called thermal resistor. And thermistors work on the principle that as the temperature of a resistive material changes, its resistance will also change. Although the resistance of all resistors changes slightly with the change in temperature. But thermistors are designed to be sensitive to temperature changes. They are widely used in temperature measurement because they are cheap and robust methods of temperature measurement. The thermistor has a temperature measurement range of -55°C to +115°C.

### What is a contact type temperature transducer?

What is a contact type temperature transducer?  Basically the contact type temperature transducer is in direct contact with the process whose temperature is being measured. And there are four contact type temperature transduced is Thermistors, resistance thermometers or resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermocouples, integrated circuit temperature transducers.

### What are the advantages of IC temperature sensor?

What are the advantages of IC temperature sensor?  Basically the output of the IC temperature sensor is linear. IC sensors are very small in size. No additional circuit is required for the IC sensor. Very accurate temperature measurement. The cost is comparatively less. The IC sensor can be easily integrated with other microcontrollers

### What is the IC DS18S20 temperature sensor?

What is the IC DS18S20 temperature sensor?  Basically it produces a digital output corresponding to the temperature. It can measure temperature from -55°C to 125°C. The accuracy of IC DS18S20 ±0.5°C..

### What is IC AD 590 temperature sensor?

What is IC AD 590 temperature sensor? Basically it is a 2 terminal IC temperature sensor which produces a current output. And this output of AD 590 is 1 ÂµA/K. Its output is also linear. The AD 590 has a range of -55°C to +150°C. Supply voltage between 4V to 30V.

### What is IC LM 35 temperature sensor?

What is IC LM 35 temperature sensor? Basically the output of this sensor is voltage. And the main advantage of this sensor is that it is calibrated directly to Celsius. This sensor output is also linear. It requires an analog to digital converter to interface with microcontrollers or microprocessors. The sensitivity of the LM 35 is 10 mV/°C. LM 35 has a range of -55°C to 150°C

### What is a transducer type IC temperature sensor?

What is a transducer type IC temperature sensor?  Basically it is characterized by small size, low thermal mass and fast response time. It is suitable for circuit boards for temperature monitoring and control. They are also used by computers to control CPU temperature

### What is immersion type IC temperature sensor?

What is immersion type IC temperature sensor?  Basically it consists of an IC temperature probe with a solid state sensor inside a metal tube. The wall of the tube will act as a sheath for the probe. The commonly used sheath is stainless steel. Applications include automotive/industrial engine oil temperature measurement, air intake temperature monitoring, etc.

### What is absolute humidity?

What is absolute humidity? Basically absolute means real value. It is the amount of water contained in a given mass of air at a given temperature. This means you can accurately detect the humidity in the air. Air density is an important criterion for determining absolute humidity. Absolute humidity (AH) is mathematically defined as AH = water vapor/air ratio.

### What is a Shell Type Transformer?

What is a Shell Type Transformer? Basically a shell type transformer is one in which the core of the transformer surrounds the windings. And in this type of transformer, the core surrounds the primary and secondary windings. Therefore, they are called shell type transformers. Both the windings are wound on the central limb of the core. As you can see, the circuit has two flux paths. The central organ carries the entire magnetic flux; and the other two side limbs carry half of the flow. HV and LV winding mounting is same as discussed earlier in core type transformer. In the second image below, the red winding is the primary and the green winding is the secondary.

### What is a core type transformer?

What is a core type transformer? Basically a core type transformer is one in which primary and secondary windings surround the transformer core. And transformers have two types of windings basically primary and secondary. The voltage is transferred from the primary to the secondary winding through the magnetic flux. And the core is the layer of metal that conducts the magnetic field and can also be called the main body of the transformer. So, in this type of transformer, windings surround the core. Hence, they are called core type transformers. The part which is twisted is also known as the limb. Both the windings are mounted on separate limbs of the core. And core type transformers have only single flux path in the circuit. Also, it is worth noting that there are two types of windings on each of the primary and secondary - low voltage (LV) and high voltage (HV). In the image below, green color is LV winding and red color is HV winding. The LV winding is placed near the core and the HV

### How does solar energy work?

How does solar energy work? Frame, glass, front adhesive film, solar cell, back adhesive film, back sheet and junction box are the primary components of a complete panel. The main component here is the solar cell. It is also known as photovoltaic cell. When solar energy hits it, it generates electricity; This is called Photovoltaic Effect. This single cell is not enough to generate a lot of power. So, many cells are used together to form a panel. Additional layers of glass and adhesive act as protection for the solar cells. Solar cells are made of silicon. It is basically a semiconductor that is the cause of electricity generation. A solar cell is made up of two silicon layers. There is a positive charging layer called the p-type layer and the other is a negative charging layer called the n-type layer. The n-type layer can donate electrons and this layer resists light. The p-type layer can accept electrons and since they gain extra electrons, the area created for such electrons is call

### What are transparent solar panels?

What are transparent solar panels? Basically, conventional solar energy conversion uses common solar panels (solar photovoltaic panels). However, transparent solar panels use plain glass as the panel. And since glass is transparent, it is coated and made with special materials to allow the photovoltaic effect to pass through. This keeps the glass transparent and converts solar energy into electricity. So, you can imagine that every piece of glass, from window frames to automobile windows, can be used as solar panels. Therefore, no additional land space or roof is required to install solar panels. A building with this type of glass windows will generate electricity automatically. So, you can literally turn any sheet of glass or window into a photovoltaic cell. All light is made up of electromagnetic radiation spread across a spectrum of wavelengths, each containing energy that can potentially be extracted by a solar cell. However, the human eye can detect only a fraction of the waveleng

### What are digital instruments?

What are digital instruments?  Basically digital measuring instruments show the measured value in digital form which will be number along with its unit. And it is much easier to read compared to analog devices. One can easily measure and note the measured value by these digital devices as it will indicate the measured value in numerical form. They can give readings to one or more decimal places. There will be no human error in this type of equipment as it will show the value as calculated from the function. Hence the measured value will be more accurate as compared to analog instrument.

What are Analog Instruments? Basically, analog instruments represent the magnitude of a quantity as a moving indicator. We want to measure readings from such instruments because there are certain marks on the scale. and they represent whole number values even though the markings in the instrument may give readings to one or two decimal places. Although we can calculate to two decimal places, it is not accurate or completely correct. We cannot get a completely accurate value in this range every time because some human errors may occur.

### What is a measuring device?

What is a measuring device? Basically an instrument used to measure a specific physical quantity is called a measuring instrument. And measuring instruments are used in our daily life to measure various quantities like length, weight, temperature, pressure, current, voltage etc. Instruments represent the value of physical quantities, through which we make certain understandings and process certain activities and decisions. . The main purpose of this measuring instrument is to measure a physical variable in its units, display the variable in its units, and record the value in its units.

### What is a chiller?

What is a chiller? A chiller is basically a central means of heat exchange between inside and outside the building. A chiller performs two basic functions: to cool the air in the building and to provide dehumidification. Water enters the evaporator and condenser via external piping. The piping inside the tubing is surrounded by a chiller medium, which is a compressible gas such as Freon. As water circulates in the tubing, heat is transferred between the water and the chiller medium. The chiller comes in two stages of media pressure. First, the medium is fed to the condenser at high pressure by a compressor. When a medium is compressed, its temperature rises. The chiller medium then leaves the condenser through an expansion device that depressurizes the medium suddenly before entering the evaporator. When a medium expands in this way, its temperature decreases. The pressure change between these two phases is the key to the cooling provided by the chiller. Heat is removed from the air in

### What are Dehumidifiers?

What are Dehumidifiers? Basically warm air has more humidity than cold air. The higher the humidity in the air, the lower the rate of evaporation of sweat. Since sweat evaporation is an important mechanism for cooling the human body, high humidity increases discomfort in warm weather. Good HVAC systems not only cool the building but also remove excess humidity. Condensation dehumidification is a process used to remove excess moisture from the air in HVAC systems. When warm, moist air passes over a cooling coil, its temperature drops to the point where the air can no longer hold all the moisture it contains. The moisture then condenses in the form of droplets on the coil which can be drained. Typically this is accomplished by coils that use chilled water to cool the building, and condensation is removed as these coils are formed.

### What is a HVAC system?

What is a HVAC system? HVAC basically stands for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning. And it is a kind of automation system used to handle the air quality and thermal comfort given to the human environment for living. It is based on thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Just like the various types of automation systems, HVAC is also a type of automation system. It is an important part while erecting high-rise buildings, commercial complexes, industrial units, hospitals, parking units, hotels, etc., where air quality and thermal parameters need to be maintained so that the surrounding employees can live comfortably.

### What is the relationship between electric current and voltage?

What is the relationship between electric current and voltage? Basically voltage is directly proportional to current (V = I * R) but in case of continuous power sourcing we find that any change in the amount of supplied current affects the supplied voltage. This means that if a transformer is supplying constant power (P) to an electrical system, changing the electrical load (motors, actuators) will affect the supplied voltage (P = V * I). So, in case of high load, we get system voltage drop and in case of low load, system voltage increases as P = V*I.

### What is Flue Gas?

What is Flue Gas? Essentially flue gas is the gas emitted from the combustion process in a power plant, flue gases come in many different forms that enter the atmosphere through flue ducts and chimney openings that enable the gases to travel from the source to the local environment.

### What is Centrifugal Machine?

What is Centrifugal Machine? Basically, a centrifugal machine consists of a cylindrical stainless steel basket. The basket is mounted on a fine circular rod with perforated sides lined with wire cloth and metal sheet with 400 to 600 holes per square inch. And the speed of centrifugal machine is 1500 to 2100 RPM. A centrifuge machine works on the principle of sedimentation. which is influenced by the force of gravity. Materials are separated based on their density. Different methods of separation include isopycnic, ultra-filtration, density gradient, phase separation and pelleting.