Showing posts from December, 2022

What is Delta PLC?

What is Delta PLC? Basically a programmable logic controller (PLC) is a control system that uses electronic operations. And PLC has easy storage process, easy expansion principles. Delta DVP Series Programmable Logic Controllers offer high-speed, stable and highly reliable applications in all types of industrial automation machines. And it has fast logic operations with multiple instructions and multiple function cards. And this Delta PLC is economical. Also this PLC supports various communication protocols to connect AC motor drives, servos, human machine interfaces and temperature controllers through industrial networks in a complete "Delta Solution" for all users.

What is an Ultrasonic Gas Leak Detector?

What is an Ultrasonic Gas Leak Detector? Basically, ultrasonic gas leak detector is also known as UGLD and is a non-centrifugal base detector. It detects ultrasound generated by pressurized gas escaping from leak points. Ultrasound is a pulse signal in the air, which is detected by the human ear through a microphone. The UGLD is designed to ignore audible noise and perceive low ultrasonic frequencies and only ultrasonic frequencies in the range of 25 kHz to 70 kHz. UGLD measures ultrasonic sound in decibels (dB). When a gas leak occurs within the range of the detector, the sound level will exceed the trigger level of the UGLD and generate an alarm. Conventional gas concentration base detectors become problematic in open ventilated areas where the gas is easily diluted and the gas moves away from the sensor. UGLD solves this problem by detecting the acoustic ultrasound produced by pressurized gas escaping from the leak.

Types of Submersible Pumps and its component

How many types of submersible pumps are there and what components are used in submersible pumps? Basically, there are various types of submersible pumps available in the market Deep well pump Bottom suction pump Stainless steel pump Oil filled pump Submersible utility pumps Water cooler pump Mixed and axial flow pumps The components of a submersible pump are as follows: Clamps Check the valve Submersible pump pressure switch torque arrester Tank tees Drain valve Relief valve Impeller safety rope Pump cable Sludge filter Inlet and outlet valves

What is a submersible pump?

What is a submersible pump? It is basically a centrifugal type pump. And instead of pulling water like normal cases, a submersible pump pushes water. It consists of a hermetically sealed motor attached to the pump body which helps in pushing the liquid to the surface. The impeller plates used in this pump are of backward curved type, which helps to push the water with great force. Its motor converts rotary motion into kinetic energy, and diffuser blades convert this kinetic energy into pressure energy.

What is an industrial robot?

What is an industrial robot? An industrial robot is basically a general-purpose, programmable machine with anthropomorphic or human-like characteristics. And designed for multi-functional operations to move materials, parts, tools or special equipment through variable programmed movements for the performance of various tasks. Generally speaking, robots are designed and controlled by a computer or similar device. The movements of the robot are controlled by a controller with the help of a program supervised by a computer. Thus, the programming feature allows robots to be used for various industrial operations.

What are the types of voltage references?

What are the types of voltage references? Types of voltage references is  Shunt voltage reference Series voltage reference Bandgap voltage reference Shunt voltage reference Basically shunt voltage references are two-terminal types designed to operate in parallel with their load over a specific current range. When not in use, the shunt removes enough current to achieve the correct output voltage while reducing the reference voltage drop. Under load, however, it will automatically decrease the sink current to maintain a constant throughput. And as a result, the shunt voltage reference will effectively regulate the output voltage by changing its sink current to accommodate load fluctuations. In practice, this approach is functionally equivalent to the one used in Zener diodes. Shunt voltage references in a small and simple PCB footprint demonstrate very good stability and accuracy over a wide range of variable current and load conditions. Moreover, as a negative voltage reference, a shunt

What is the voltage reference?

What is the voltage reference? Basically voltage references are electronic components, devices or circuits designed to provide a constant direct current output value or a constant voltage regardless of variations in other external variables. These may include total equipment load, power supply variations, temperature, humidity, elapsed time, and various other variables.

What is Variable Frequency Drive?

What is Variable Frequency Drive? Basically variable frequency drives are also called AC drives. And another name of AC drive is variable frequency drive as well as variable speed drive. A variable frequency drive is a type of motor controller that drives an electric motor by changing the frequency and voltage of its power supply. And the variable frequency drive also has the ability to control the ramp-up and ramp-down of the motor during start or stop respectively.

What are pressure sensing lines?

What are pressure sensing lines? Basically pressure sensing lines are also known as impulse lines. And this sensing line enables positioning of pressure transmitters away from the process station. This line minimizes the effect of temperature on transmitter performance and operation. Also high ambient or atmospheric temperatures will affect the transmitter's mechanical components and shorten the life of its solid-state electronics. Placing the pressure transmitter away from the process station will reduce the effects of vibration and make maintenance or replacement of the pressure transmitter easier.

What are the causes of errors in pressure measurement?

What are the causes of errors in pressure measurement?  Basically voids, blockages, leaks or freezing in the sensing lines can cause pressure measurement errors. And it is also affects the dynamic response of the pressure-sensing system.  Voids Basically air or gas trapped in the fluid sensing lines will cause false pressure readings and sluggish the response. Blockages   Clogging in sensing lines occurs when the sludge particles solidify when chemicals are used in water treatment and other impurities accumulate. They are also occur due to improper alignment of isolations and obstruction of valve equalization due to crimped sensing lines. Leakage   Basically pressure sensing lines present many possibilities for leakage. The sensing line consists of an equalizing valve, one or more root valves, and an isolation valve. Some other connection leakage problems may increase under high working pressure. Significant fluid in the sensing line indicates false pressure. Freezing   Basically Freez

What is dynamic pressure?

What is dynamic pressure?  Basically, dynamic pressure is the pressure of a fluid such as a gas or liquid, which is the transfer of momentum from the molecules to the object on which the pressure acts. Dynamic pressure due to motion of fluid particle is known as collisional pressure. And this pressure is used to determine the airspeed of the aircraft. Dynamic pressure measurements are performed in various fields such as combustion control, automotive industry, turbo machinery and combustion analysis in aerodynamics in the process industry and power plants.

What is lead or lead alloy sheath in cable?

What is lead or lead alloy sheath in cable?  Lead sheathing offers the best protection against oils and chemicals and is required where there is continuous contact with mud heavily contaminated with hydrocarbon material. Lead alloys are a lighter alternative to the chemical barrier offered by lead, frequently used in high vibration areas.

What is single or double layer of metal tape cable?

What is single or double layer of metal tape cable?  Essentially the metal tape is either steel or brass wrapped around the bedding covering the insulated core longitudinally. And this cable is somewhat less flexible than the SWA version while providing a tight covering seal on the core. Tapes provide mostly complete coverage. Steel tapes provide the best inductive protection while brass tapes are most commonly used for rodent protection.

What is the use of steel wire armouring?

What is the use of steel wire armouring?  Steel wire armoring (SWA) is used to provide significant resistance to mechanical impacts. SWA is made up of either round steel galvanized wires or flat steel galvanized wires wound around the bedding covering the insulated conductor.

Why glass-backed mica tape is used in fireproof cables?

Why glass-backed mica tape is used in fireproof cables?  Glass-backed mica tape is widely used in fireproof cables in general because of its exceptional performance as an insulation material under fire conditions.

What is Low Smoke Zero Halogen?

What is Low Smoke Zero Halogen?  Low Smoke Zero Halogen is also known as LSZH. And low smoke zero halogen materials are used in place of PVC materials where fire conditions pose a significant risk to life and equipment. These cables do not produce halogen acid gases when burned and do not release the significant layers of dense black smoke of PVC equivalent materials in the event of a fire. Various additives can be added to this material to improve its resistance to chemicals, including oils and solvents. Silicone rubber is used in applications where an extended temperature range is required, suitable for applications from -90°C to 180°C. And silicone rubber is also widely used where cables are required to maintain circuit integrity under fire conditions.

What is cross-linking polyethylene?

What is cross-linking polyethylene?  Cross-linking polyethylene is also known as XLPE. And cross-linking improves PE cable performance, increasing temperature and chemical resistance. Cross-linking polyethylene materials are mainly used as insulation materials.

What is Polyethylene?

What is Polyethylene?  Polyethylene is also known as PE. and is used as either insulation or cladding material. It has excellent chemical resistance including oils and very low water absorption. Polyethylene also has excellent mechanical strength and low-temperature resistance. Due to the stiffness of the PE material, PE cables are somewhat rigid and not flame-resistant. Because of its flammability, PE sheathing is typically used for outdoor applications or with cables for direct burial.

What is Polyvinyl Chloride?

What is Polyvinyl Chloride? Polyvinyl chloride is known as PVC. And is flame retardant and self-extinguishing. and is used either as an insulation material or as a cladding material. PVC is an extremely versatile material that has traditionally been used extensively in the cable industry. PVC can be modified for both indoor and outdoor use, in both wet and dry conditions, conduit or direct burial, and high- and low-temperature applications. PVC also has resistance to various chemicals, including some oils and solvents. PVC is being replaced by low-smoke, halogen-free materials in certain applications, where fire conditions pose a greater risk to life and equipment.

What materials are used in instrumentation cables?

What materials are used in instrumentation cables?   Materials commonly used in instrumentation cable design are PVC, PE, XLPE, LSZH, mica tape, steel wire armouring, metal braid and lead alloy sheath.

What is an optical level switch?

  What is an optical level switch? Optical level switch Optical level switches are basically the same as radar sensors; The difference is that optical light is emitted instead of waves. And the light is transmitted and reflected back into the conical prism structure. This means that light will not travel all the way through the medium, but will be confined within a structure. And there is no medium in this structure, then the light will be reflected back. If a medium is present, the light will not be reflected back. This changes the electrical output.

What is a paddle type level switch?

What is a paddle type level switch? Paddle type level switch Basically it's a very simple concept and works on the movement of a paddle. And below is installed in the sensor setup, which is driven by a small electric motor. In the absence of any medium, the paddle will rotate freely. If in contact with any medium, more force will be required to move the paddle. It may also happen that the pedal stops rotating. This rotational change changes the electrical output.

What is an inductive level switch?

What is an inductive level switch? Inductive level switch Basically an inductive level switch works on the principle of electromagnetic radiation and eddy currents. And it uses an oscillator resonant circuit that uses a core magnetic coil to generate a strong electromagnetic field. When this field penetrates the media, it creates eddy currents that reduce the amplitude of the oscillations. This switch changes the electrical output.

What is a vibrating fork level switch?

What is a vibrating fork level switch? Vibrating fork level switch Basically the vibrating fork level switch works on the principle of vibration. And it uses a fork that vibrates every time through an internal mechanism. When this fork comes in contact with the media, the vibration level changes. This changes the electrical output.

What is a Radar and Laser Level Switch?

What is a Radar and Laser Level Switch? Laser level switch Basically radar and laser level switches are non-contact switches that emit ultraviolet radar rays as well as microwaves to transmit and reflect waves. And the waves touch the surface of the media and are reflected back to the transmitter. It then measures the distance or height of the medium by measuring the time it takes to transmit and receive and the speed of the waves.

What is capacitive level switch?

What is capacitive level switch? Capacitive level switch Basically this switch is like a capacitor, the switch has an insulated electrode that acts as the first plate and the tank wall (reference electrode) acts as the second plate. And the capacity between the two varies with the height of the medium level. As the level changes, the capacitance changes and so does the electrical output.

What is a conductivity level switch?

What is a conductivity level switch? Conductivity level switch Basically the conductance level switch work is similar to the capacitance level switch; And the only difference is that it works on resistance. And this is similar to the probe theory mentioned earlier, the difference in resistance between them (based on the media layer) converts to electrical output. It will only work if the media has some conductivity, which causes electrical resistance.

What is Displacer Level Switch?

What is Displacer Level Switch? Displacer level switch Basically the displacer level switch works on the principle of weight displacement. And a displacer is used, which is a very heavy float type, suspended by a spring. When the media level touches the displacer and submerges it in water, due to the buoyant force and the weight of the displacer relative to the acting medium. This releases the spring pressure and changes the electrical output. This means that the weight of the displacer must be greater than the weight of the media in normal condition (when the media is not touched). Only then, it will detect the change in weight.

What is a float level switch?

What is a float level switch? Float level switch Basically float switch is the most common type of level switch. It is mounted or floating on the media to be sensed. Suppose it is floating on a liquid. When the float is in the upright position or above the upright position, it means the level is correct. Now, let's say the float goes below the vertical position. This means the level has dropped and because of this, the switch will change its electrical output. The switch consists of a magnet with a reed switch. It is the switch that transmits the electrical signal. The switch is moved by a magnet which changes its position according to the floating level sensed.

What are the types of level switches?

What are the types of level switches? Types of level switches Float Level Switch, Diaphragm Level Switch, Capacitive Level Switch, Conductivity Level Switch, Displacer Level Switch, Inductive Level Switch, Vibrating Fork Level Switch, Optical Level Switch, Radar and Laser Level Switch, Paddle Type Level Switch

What is Buchholz Relay?

What is Buchholz Relay? Basically Buchholz relay is used to detect internal faults in oil filled transformers. And that oil is used as insulation for the transformer body. This relay works on the principle of gas detection. and is also known as a safety device used in oil-filled transformers. When internal faults occur inside, the current goes up to a very high abnormal range. This high current automatically increases the operating temperature inside. As the oil is filled in, the excess heat generated causes it to evaporate. As it begins to change to gaseous form, it rises to the oil reservoir. A Buchholz relay is placed between the protector and the transformer tank (body). It detects this gas and immediately trips the circuit. This means the transformer is closed for operation, thereby avoiding any untoward incident.

Difference between permittivity and permeability

Difference between permittivity and permeability Permeability Permeability is related to magnetic field. Permittivity The permittivity is related to the electric field. Permeability Permeability is a measure of the application or allowance for a magnetic field Permittivity Permittivity is a measure of resistance to an electric field. Permeability Permittivity is the electric displacement/intensity of the electric field. Permittivity Permeability is a measure of the magnetic induction/intensity of a magnetic field. Permeability Permeability is denoted by the Greek letter μ. Permittivity Permittivity is denoted by the Greek alphabet ϵ. Permeability The SI unit of permeability is henry/meter. Permittivity The SI unit of permittivity is farad/meter.

What is Permeability?

What is Permeability? Permeability is basically related to the magnetic field and is denoted by μ. and is measured by the magnitude of the magnetic induction or intensity of the magnetic field. It may vary depending on the type of material used, the strength of the magnetic field, the environmental characteristics of temperature and humidity etc.

What is permittivity?

What is permittivity? Basically permittivity is a property related to the electric field of the media. Suppose there is a medium between two conductors. Every medium contains atoms of electrons and neutrons. They are unbalanced or unbalanced which means placed anywhere in the media without any electrical interference. When an electric field is applied to a conductor, the atoms polarize themselves in the correct direction and this movement through them creates their own electric field, which opposes the external electric field applied to the conductor. And they start moving away from it. This opposition is known as permission. It measures the resistance offered against the formation of an electric field. If they are properly aligned and moving away from the electric field, it means that the medium has better permittivity. It is denoted by the Greek alphabet ϵ. This is represented as the electric displacement/intensity of the electric field. It may vary depending on the type of material

Difference between solenoid valve and motorized valve

Difference between solenoid valve and motorized valve Solenoid valve Solenoid valve works on electromagnetism. Motorized valve A motorized valve operates on an electric motor. Solenoid valve A solenoid valve is a digital output. Motorized valve A motorized valve can have a digital or analog output. Solenoid valve The solenoid valve magnetizes and operates quickly in response to the current, the response is very fast. But, this rapid control does not provide easy passage of fluid. On the contrary. Motorized valve A motorized valve moves very slowly in response to current. Response is slow, but fluid control is accurate and precise. Solenoid valve Solenoid valves are not suitable for high-pressure media. Since the valve opens and closes quickly (usually within a second), the resulting high pressure can damage the valve or damage the pipeline after prolonged use. Motorized valve A motorized valve on the other hand is suitable for any pressure media as it will accurately pass or block the

What is a motorized valve?

What is a motorized valve? Basically motorized valves work on the principle of motor movement. And an electric motor is mounted on the valve and geared to the valve stem so that the valve is open or closed when the motor is running. As the motor is used, it is very much driven by the power supply. And the motor operation is very slow and controlled. When you turn on the motor valve via an external voltage supply, it opens the throttle in a ramp-up slow way. And you close the motor valve, it closes the throttle in a ramp-down slow way.

What is a solenoid valve?

What is a solenoid valve? Solenoid valve basically works on the principle of electromagnetism. It consists of a wire coil which acts like an electromagnet. This coil controls the movement of the mechanical plunger, which ultimately controls the flow of fluid through it. Normally when current is passed through a magnetic coil, a strong electromagnetic field is created. The principle used in this valve When the coil is energized by an external supply voltage, as it is magnetized, an electromagnetic field is created. This field attracts or repels the movement of the plunger, as it is very strong. When energized, the plunger opens the fluid barrier and allows the fluid to escape. When the coil is de-energized, the plunger again closes the opening as the thrust is removed and blocks the passage of fluid. Thus, it can be referred to as digital output

What is air circuit breaker?

What is air circuit breaker? Basically Air Circuit Breaker is also known as ACB and circuit breakers are all about extinguishing high-tripping currents or arc generated during power off condition. When the fixed and moving contacts in a circuit breaker are separated from each other during trip or off condition, a large amount of arc is generated. Hence, when air is used to extinguish the arc, it is known as an air circuit breaker. Air circuit breakers also use compressed air to blow out the arc, or alternatively, the contacts are rapidly rotated in a small sealed chamber to allow the displaced air to escape, thus blowing the arc. But, it must be known that the air used is operating at normal atmospheric pressure.

What is circuit breaker?

What is circuit breaker? Basically circuit breaker is an essential part of electrical circuit. And it is a device which is used as a protective switch for passing electric current with checking of tripping conditions. Usually the circuit breaker detects a trip condition, the breaker opens its contact and separates the input as well as the output voltage from each other contact. So, the basic function of a circuit breaker is to interrupt the current flow once a fault is detected. It remains open until the user resets the trip.

Types of Relays Used in Air Circuit Breaker (ACB)

Types of Relays Used in Air Circuit Breaker (ACB) Basically internal protection and tripping applications, relays are used internally in air circuit breakers to make it more efficient in operation. And generally three types of relays are used in air circuit breaker. shunt coil relay Under Voltage (UV) Relay closing relay Shunt Coil Relay Basically this relay can also be called as power relay for air circuit breaker. Shunt coil relay is an automatically controlled relay, which can be operated remotely to open or close a circuit breaker. Just like a PLC operates a relay, this shunt coil relay can also be operated (on or off) by it. The operation of this relay directly opens or closes the circuit breaker. Under Voltage (UV) Relay Basically this relay is used to detect under voltage in the incoming power supply. Overvoltage is a simple natural problem that the circuit breaker will detect and trip the path. When the incoming voltage is low and usually less than 380 V, the load connected in

What is the working principle of transformer bushing?

What is the working principle of transformer bushing?  Working principle of transformer bushing  Basically a bushing consists of several components. But we will take a general look at the main working principle. It mainly consists of an insulated body, into which the conductor passes. The insulation is usually made of porcelain or capacitance-grade material because it increases the dielectric strength. There is a space between the insulation body and the conductor. This space is filled with electrical-grade mineral oil, which has excellent insulation properties. It prevents direct contact between insulator and conductor. Porcelain is used because it handles a lot of electrical stress. Basically the same theory goes with capacitance-graded materials. Because high voltage stress can break low quality insulation very easily, it is important to use this type of material. Also, they have excellent mechanical strength, which increases the life of the bushing. Oil is properly filled in propor

What is Transformer and Transformer Bushing?

What is Transformer and Transformer Bushing? What is a transformer?  Basically a transformer is a device which is used to step up or step down the voltage as required. Transformers are required in power transmission and generation stages, with high voltages. Since the transformer works at very high voltage, it is also necessary to take care that it works properly without any leakage or damage. And the transformer has one component that helps it to function properly, that component is the bushing. And without bushings, it is not possible to operate the transformer in any high-voltage condition and that generally in KV. What is Transformer Bushing?  A bushing is basically an electrical insulator that allows the safe passage of electrical conductor current. It is similar to any insulator around the conductor, which helps prevent any untoward incident from occurring. A transformer has two windings - primary and secondary (HV and LV). It makes connections with external wires to conduct elec