Showing posts with the label Analyzer

Vector signal analyzer

  Vector signal analyzer A vector signal analyzer measures the magnitude and phase of aninput signal at a single frequency within the IF bandwidth of the instrument. The primary use is to make in-channel measurements, such as error vector magnitude, code domain power, and spectral flatness, on known signals. A vector signal analyzer is an instrument that measures the magnitude and phase of the input signal at a single frequency within the IF bandwidth of the instrument. The primary use is to make in-channel measurements, such as error vector magnitude, code domain power, and spectral flatness, on known signals. Vector signal analyzers are useful in measuring and demodulating digitally modulated signals like W-CDMA, LTE, and WLAN. These measurements are used to determine the quality of modulation and can be used for design validation and compliance testing of electronic devices. The vector signal analyzer spectrum analysis process typically has a down-convert & digitizing stage and

Quadrupole mass analyzer principle, limits, benefits and applications

  Quadrupole mass analyzer The type of analyzer which is used to separate the ions on the basis of specified charge to mass ratio. An instrument for measuring the relative amounts of different gases in a mixture. The gas could be atmospheric air, could be evolved from a chemical process, might be trapped inside a small mineral sample, or even be dissolved in a liquid such as sea water. Introduction The quadrupole mass analyzer (QMS), also known as a transmission quadrupole mass spectrometer, quadrupole mass filter, or quadrupole mass spectrometer, is one type of mass analyzer used in mass spectrometry. As the name implies, it consists of four cylindrical rods, set parallel to each other. In a quadrupole mass spectrometer the quadrupole is the mass analyzer  the component of the instrument responsible for selecting sample ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Ions are separated in a quadrupole based on the stability of their trajectories in the oscillating electric fields that

Protocol analyser (packet sniffer) types and uses

 Protocol analyser (packet sniffer) A packet analyzer or packet sniffer is a computer program or computer hardware such as a packet capture appliance, that can intercept and log traffic that passes over a computer network or part of a network. Packet capture is the process of intercepting and logging traffic. As data streams flow across the network, the analyzer captures each packet and, if needed, decodes the packet's raw data, showing the values of various fields in the packet, and analyzes its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications. A packet analyzer used for intercepting traffic on wireless networks is known as a wireless analyzer or WiFi analyzer. A packet analyzer can also be referred to as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer though these terms also have other meanings. A packet sniffer also known as a packet analyzer, protocol analyzer  is a piece of hardware or software used to monitor network traffic. Sniffers work by examining streams of data

Network analyzer Types (SNA, VNA) and it's Benefits and Drawbacks

  Network analyzer Network analyzers characterize radio frequency (RF) devices and is an instrument that measures the network parameters of electrical networks. Introduction A network analyzer is an instrument that measures the network parameters of electrical networks. Today, network analyzers commonly measure s–parameters because reflection and transmission of electrical networks are easy to measure at high frequencies, but there are other network parameter sets such as y-parameters, z-parameters, and h-parameters. Network analyzers are often used to characterize two-port networks such as amplifiers and filters, but they can be used on networks with an arbitrary number of ports. The network analyzer is a instrument used for transmission measurements and reflection measurements. There are two types of network analyzer viz. Scalar and Vector. Transmission measurements include transmission coefficient, insertion loss, gain etc. Reflection measurements include reflection coefficient, ret

Spectrum analyzer working principle, used and applications

  Spectrum analyzer Spectrum analyzers are one of the important testings which are used to measure frequencies and many other parameters. A spectrum analyzer measures the magnitude of an input signal versus frequency within the full frequency range of the instrument. The primary use is to measure the power of the spectrum of known and unknown signals. The input signal that most common spectrum analyzers measure is electrical; however, spectral compositions of other signals, such as acoustic pressure waves and optical light waves, can be considered through the use of an appropriate transducer. Spectrum analyzers for other types of signals also exist, such as optical spectrum analyzers which use direct optical techniques such as a monochromator to make measurements. By analyzing the spectra of electrical signals, dominant frequency, power, distortion, harmonics, bandwidth, and other spectral components of a signal can be observed that are not easily detectable in time domain waveforms. T

Lexical analyzer

  Lexical analyzer Programs that perform lexical analysis are called lexical analyzers or lexers. In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as in a computer program or web page) into a sequence of tokens (strings with an assigned and thus identified meaning). A program that performs lexical analysis may be termed a lexer, tokenizer, or scanner, although scanner is also a term for the first stage of a lexer. A lexer is generally combined with a parser, which together analyze the syntax of programming languages, web pages, and so forth. Lexical analysis is the first phase of a compiler. It takes the modified source code from language preprocessors that are written in the form of sentences. The lexical analyzer breaks these syntaxes into a series of tokens, by removing any whitespace or comments in the source code. LEXICAL ANALYSIS is the very first phase in the compiler designing. A Lexer takes the modified s

What is a Logic Analyzer, Types and Applications

  Logic analyser Logic analyzers are widely used to develop and debug electronic logic circuits - they display traces of multiple logic channels and reveal the circuit operation. A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system. Logic analyser types Although development of these test instruments is on-going and new variants are constantly being launched and many technology innovations are being achieved, there are some main categories into which most logic analyzers can be split: Modular logic analyzers   This type of logic analyser is probably what may be thought of a

Electron microprobe

  Electron microprobe An electron microprobe (EMP), also known as an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) or electron micro probe analyzer (EMPA), is an analytical tool used to non-destructively determine the chemical composition of small volumes of solid materials. It works similarly to a scanning electron microscope: the sample is bombarded with an electron beam, emitting x-rays at wavelengths characteristic to the elements being analyzed. This enables the abundances of elements present within small sample volumes (typically 10-30 cubic micrometers or less) to be determined, when a conventional accelerating voltage of 15-20 kV is used. The concentrations of elements from lithium to plutonium may be measured at levels as low as 100 parts per million (ppm), material dependent, although with care, levels below 10 ppm are possible. The ability to quantify lithium by electron probe microanalyzer. The technique is commonly used for analyzing the chemical composition of metals, alloys, ceram

Differential analyzer

  Differential analyser  The differential analyser is a mechanical analogue computer designed to solve differential  equations by integration, using wheel-and-disc mechanisms to perform the integration. It was one of the first advanced computing devices to be used operationally. The original machines could not add, but then it was noticed that if the two wheels of a rear differential are turned, the drive shaft will compute the average of the left and right wheels. A simple gear ratio of 1:2 then enables multiplication by two, so addition (and subtraction) are achieved. Multiplication is just a special case of integration, namely integrating a constant function.  Differential analyzer, computing device for solving differential equations. Its principal components perform the mathematical operation of integration  A differential analyzer is a complicated arrangement of rods, gears, and spinning discs that can solve differential equations of up to the sixth order. It is like a digital com

Bus analyser

  Bus analyser A bus analyzer is a type of a protocol analysis tool, used for capturing and analyzing communication data across a specific interface bus, usually embedded in a hardware system. The bus analyzer functionality helps design, test and validation engineers to check, test, debug and validate their designs throughout the design cycles of a hardware-based product. It also helps in later phases of a product life cycle, in examining communication interoperability between systems and between components, and clarifying hardware support concerns. A bus analyzer is designed for use with specific parallel or serial bus architectures. Though the term bus analyzer implies a physical communication and interface that is being analyzed, it is sometimes used interchangeably with the term protocol analyzer or Packet Analyzer, and may be used also for analysis tools for Wireless interfaces like wireless LAN (like Wi-Fi), PAN (like Bluetooth, Wireless USB), and other, though these technologies

Automatic Analyzer

  Automatic Analyzer Complete automation will lead to human prohibition in pharma industries. “One machine can do the work of fifty ordinary men, no machine can do the work of one extraordinary man” automation as the use of combinations of mechanical and instrumental devices to replace, refine, extend or supplement human effort and facilities in the performance of a given process, in which at least one major operation is controlled without human intervention, by a feedback mechanism. Benefits of Automation Faster analyses up to 120 samples per hour. Up to 300 samples can be analyzed in batch. Automatic data recording and preparation Being a closed system, automation reduces contamination, for e.g., from atmospheric gases. Greater accuracy and reproducibility of results as all samples are subject to same processes. Smaller sample and reagent volumes which reduces cost. Automatic range changing, drift control and automatic sample preparation. Need for automation The partial or complete r