Showing posts with the label Instrumentation in Agriculture and Food Industries

Three Point Linkage

Three Point Linkage It is a combination of three links, one upper link and two lower links, the links attached to the tractor and attached at their ends to attach implements to the tractor. The standard system for attaching implements to the tractor is the three point linkage. The three point linkage system is designed to carry the weight of equipment, such as plows, rotors, trailers, etc.  Advantage Of Three Point Linkage Easy control of working implements Quick setting of implements Good balancing of attached implements.


Biosensors A biosensor is an analytical device that produces a signal proportional to the concentration of an analyte in a reaction, biological or chemical Measures substances and reactions. A biosensor combines a biological element with a physico-chemical detector. Biosensors typically consist of enzymes, antibodies, cells, nucleic acids, aptamers, semi-conducting materials, nanomaterials, and electronic systems that include processors, signal amplifiers, and displays. All types of biosensors typically produce minimal sample size because the biological detecting element is highly selective for the analyte. Physical and electrochemical changes occurring on the outside of the biosensor will generate a signal within the conducting polymer layer. Types Of Biosensors Electrochemical biosensors Optical biosensors Electronic biosensors Piezoelectric biosensors Gravimetric biosensors Pyroelectric biosensors Magnetic biosensors Biosensors Applications Common healthcare checking Metabolites Mea

Differentiate Between FSSAI And AGMARK

Differentiate Between FSSAI And AGMARK

Food Quality Measurement And Food Safety Standards

Food Quality Measurement And Food Safety Standards Food Quality Measurement Food quality has both subjective and subjective aspects. Appearance, texture and taste are largely subjective attributes, while nutritional and bacterial quality are not. The last two scores can be measured objectively by chemical analysis, bacterial counts, or other specific tests.  Food quality is characterized by characteristics acceptable to consumers. These include external factors such as aspect (shape, size, luster, color), texture and taste. Other factors are legal quality standards and internal factors like chemical, physical, microbiological. Food Quality Characteristics of food acceptable to consumers. It includes external factors such as taste, texture and appearance and internal factors such as chemical, physical and microbial. A combination of attributes or characteristics of a product will be important in determining the degree of acceptability of that product to the consumer. So the higher the d

Agro metrological parameters at weather station.

Agro metrological parameters at weather station.  A agrometeorological station is a station that simultaneously provides detailed meteorological and biological information and where research in agrometeorology is carried out. In both meteorological and biological fields the equipment, range and frequency of observations and professional personnel are such that fundamental investigations of agrometeorological questions of interest to the countries or regions concerned can be made. A typical agricultural meteorological station is a station that provides meteorological and biological information on a regular basis, simultaneously, and may be equipped to assist in research on specific problems; In general, a program of biological or phenological observations for research will be related to the station's local climate and local agriculture. An auxiliary agrometeorological station provides information on soil temperature and moisture, potential evapotranspiration, duration of plant wetne

Drawbar Hitch Three Point Linkage

Drawbar Hitch Three Point Linkage Drawbar Hitch Drawbar is a device through which the pulling power of the tractor is transmitted to the trailing implements. It consists of a crossbar with suitable holes, attached to the lower hitch links. It is mounted on the rear of the tractor. Three Point Linkage It is a combination of three links, one upper link and two lower links, the links attached to the tractor and attached at their ends to attach implements to the tractor. Advantage Of Three Point Linkage Easy control of working implements Quick setting of implements Automatic hydraulic control of implements such as position control, draft control etc. Good balancing of attached implements.

Basic Components Of Hydraulic System And Types Of Hydraulic System

Basic Components Of Hydraulic System And Types Of Hydraulic System Basic Components Of Hydraulic System Hydraulic Pump Hydraulic Cylinder And Piston Hydraulic tank Control valve Pressure Relief Valve Hose Pipe Hydraulic Pump There are many types of hydraulic pumps, such as gear pumps, plunger pumps, vane pumps, and screw pumps. A gear pump can flow a large amount of oil compared to a plunger pump. The basic concept of all hydraulic pumps is to displace a volume of fluid against a resistive load or pressure. Hydraulic Cylinder It is an bigger sized cylinder, in which pistons and connecting rods are mounted. It is also known as ram cylinder. The connecting rod transmits power from the piston to the lifting arms. The piston moves in the hydraulic cylinder and creates reciprocating motion in the cylinder. When raising the equipment the lifting arms are raised by hydraulic pressure but are lowered by their own weight. Hydraulic Piston The piston is attached to the piston rod and moves up an

Working principle of hydraulic system

Working principle of hydraulic system The working principle of hydraulic system is based on pascal's law. This law states that the pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted equally in all direc­tions. Small force acting on small area can produce higher force on a surface of larger area Operation The hydraulic pump draws up oil from the oil reservoir and sends it to the control valve under high pressure. From the control valve, the oil goes to the hydraulic cylinder to operate the piston, which in turn, raises the lifting arms. The lifting arms are attached with implements. The hydraulic pump is operated by suitable gears, connected with engine. There are two types of arrangements for storing hydraulic oil in the system There is a common oil reservoir for hydraulic system and the transmission system in some tractors, There is a special tank for hydra­ulic oil. It is separate from the transmission chamber. Basic Components Of Hydraulic System Hydraulic pump Hydraulic cylin

Hydraulic Control System

Hydraulic Control System A hydraulic system controls the transmission of energy.  It transforms the mechanical energy of a prime motor into fluid energy.  It controls the fluid configuration and transforms the fluid energy into mechanical work at specified locations.  Hydraulic systems feature high power density, sensitive response and precision of control, especially when operating under computer control.  Thus, they have been widely used as the energy transmission control systems in aircraft, ships, construction machinery, machine tools and others.  Therefore, it is indispensable for a mechanical engineer to become versed with hydraulic control technology.  The technology is mainly associated with fluid mechanics and control theories, but it is related to the wider field of engineering as well. The hydraulic system performs and functions multiple tasks by using a fluid that is pressurized

Gypsum Block Soil Moisture Sensor

Gypsum Block Soil Moisture Sensor  A soil moisture block, often referred to as a gypsum block or electrical resistance block, is a device for measuring soil moisture changes. The soil moisture block consists of two electrodes mounted in a small block of porous material. Wires are attached to the electrodes. The sensor is buried in the soil at the depth to be monitored and the wires extend to the soil surface. Once installed, the block’s moisture content comes into equilibrium with the surrounding soil moisture. A meter is attached to the wires at the surface and an AC current is passed through the block. The electrical resistance measured by the meter is related to the soil moisture surrounding the soil moisture block. The wetter the soil (and the block), the less resistance to the passage of the current. The soil moisture block therefore indirectly monitors soil moisture by measuring electrical resistance. Most soil moisture blocks are not as sensitive as tensiometers in wetter soils

Irrigation Method

Irrigation Method  Overhead Irrigation  Centre Pivot Irrigation  Lateral Move Irrigation  Micro Irrigation Overhead Irrigation  Overhead irrigation is also known as sprinkler irrigation. In overhead irrigation water is applied in the form of spray or artificial rain. In overhead irrigation water loss is high. Overhead irrigation have higher evaporation rate. Overhead irrigation method is used when there is no shortage of water. In overhead irrigation power consumption is high.  Center Pivot Irrigation  Center pivot irrigation some time called as central pivot irrigation and also called as water wheel and circle irrigation. Centre pivot irrigation is a method of crop irrigation. Center Pivot Irrigation A device that rotates around a pivot and sprinkles water like artificial rain. In center pivot irrigation power consumption is high. Centre pivot is highly effective on large land fields. Lateral Move Irrigation  Lateral move irrigation is a close cousin of the center pivot. Lateral move

Ventilation in Green House Environment

Ventilation in Green House Environment Greenhouse Ventilation The greenhouse ventilation system plays a pivotal role in plant health and crop production.  Many novice horticulturalists do not attribute slow growth, poor yields, or problems with pathogens to an inadequate greenhouse ventilation system.  Most gardeners understand the importance of ventilation systems for temperature control but benefits derived from ventilation systems are multifaceted.  Not only are ventilation systems vital to maintaining environmental conditions but they also directly influence a plant’s ability to perform photosynthesis, uptake essential elements, and complete reproductive cycles (pollination).  Greenhouse ventilation systems serve four imperative functions temperature control,  humidity control,  CO2/oxygen replacement, and  air circulation. Temperature Control Greenhouses trap solar radiation thereby raising the temperature in the environment (the greenhouse effect). If this heat is not removed fro

Types of Pumps

Types of Pumps Positive Displacement Pumps Dynamic Pumps Centrifugal pumps Submersible pumps Turbine pumps End-suction centrifugal pumps Jet pumps Floating pumps Positive Displacement Pumps Positive displacement pump is also known as PD pump. positive displacement pump displaces or pushes the water from one place to another by mechanical energy. It has two sides – a suction side and a discharge side. The fluid goes into the suction valve and comes out through the outlet valve. They use the piston’s reciprocating, rotary, or linear motion to trap a fixed volume of fluid in a compartment inside the pump, which is then transferred or discharged outside through the nozzle. It operates by simultaneously filling the chamber with the fluid and then displacing it. In positive displacement pumps, a piston or plunger inside a cylinder is the driving element as it moves in reciprocating motion.  The stroke length and, thus, the volume delivered per stroke is adjustable within a 10:1 range.  Range

Selection Criteria Of Pump

Selection Criteria Of Pump  Pump selection is crucial to ensuring that the farmer’s irrigation design layout meets the precise requirements for the crop and optimizes irrigation efficiency. These requirements are satisfied if the pump matches the irrigation system, flow pressure is kept low, and controls are  Choosing the Right Irrigation Equipment  A varied range of equipment affects your product in varying ways since quite some factors come into play - they require different amounts of water and water pressure, depending upon their use and build. Thus, choosing your equipment before selecting your water pump is an essential and precautionary step. Choosing the correct irrigation equipment requires you to consider the controller since it plays an important role in switching the water supply on and off, at specified time intervals, and during specific climatic conditions. Consider the water source  Water for irrigation purposes is generally directed from sources such as tube wells, wel

Fermenter Control

Fermenter Control Batch fermentation is a process where all the substrate and nutrients are added at zero time or soon after inoculation takes place, and the vessel is allowed under a controlled environment to proceed until maximum end product concentration is achieved.  Batch fermentations are the most commonly used and simplest models to study the fermentation activity of colonic microbes.  These batch fermenters are usually anaerobic sealed bottles with pure cultures, defined mixed cultures or fecal slurry, and are used to study the effects of added NSP on the microbes and their fermentation activity.  Batch fermentation of oleaginous microorganisms is generally conducted with a high C/N ratio to induce the extra carbon into lipids accumulation at limiting nitrogen concentration conditions.  batch fermentation were mainly focused on nutritional and physiological parameters.  Batch fermentation is highly dynamic yet a closed system in which all the medium components, except gases suc

Basics Of Fermentation

  Basics Of Fermentation Fermentation is similar to the kind of respiration that takes place when there isn't enough oxygen present, namely anaerobic respiration. However unlike respiration, which uses pyruvic acid, fermentation leads to the production of different organic molecules like lactic acid, which also leads to ATP. Basic Components Of Fermentation Both types of fermentation require two primary components, a sugar supply and a bacterial culture; alcohol fermentations use forms of yeast, while lactic acid fermentation normally relies on lactic acid bacteria.  Additionally, the environment used to house the fermenting food must be of a suitable temperature, moisture and pH for the bacteria to successfully survive; the environment also normally lacks oxygen, though special cases of aerobic fermentation do exist.

Different Stages Involved In The Dairy Industry

Different Stages Involved In The Dairy Industry Cows are milked using vacuum cups which are attached to the cow's teats. The milk is sent through stainless steel pipes to large refrigerated vats, then stored at 5°C or less. Within 48 hours, milk is taken in tankers to a milk factory where it's pasteurized and homogenized. Pasteurization This technique heats milk to 72°C for no less than 15 seconds, then cooled immediately to destroy any harmful bacteria and micro-organisms. This also extends the shelf life.  Read More. Homogenization Milk is put under pressure through fine nozzles, which evenly disperses fat globules. This stops the cream separating and rising to the top, allowing a more consistent texture and taste. Some manufacturers produce unhomogenized milk for people who prefer the cream to separate and rise to the top of the bottle. Centrifugal separation This removes some or all of the cream to make reduced-fat, low-fat or skim milk. Skim milk solids can be added back t

Pasteurization Process And Related Instrumentation Involved In Dairy Plant

Pasteurization Process And Related Instrumentation Involved In Dairy Plant Pasteurization Process  Pasteurization is a process that kills pathogens in milk. Pasteurizer is the equipment used for HTST pasteurization. Pasteurizer is also known as plate heat exchanger. Pasteurization process achieved by heating the milk in the pasteurizer to a temperature of minimum 72 °C, holding it at that temperature for 15 seconds and rapidly cooling below 4 °C. Pasteurization involves heating liquids at high temperatures for short amounts of time. Pasteurization kills harmful microbes in milk without affecting the taste or nutritional value (sterilization= all bacteria are destroyed). The process of pasteurization involves heating milk to 71.7°C for at least 15 seconds (and no more than 25 seconds). Because of the nature of the heat treatment it sometimes referred to as the 'High Temperature Short Time' (HTST) process. Once the milk has been heated, it is then cooled very quickly to less than

Flow Diagram For Typical Dairy Plant

Flow Diagram For Typical Dairy Plant

Active And Passive Earth Pressures

Active And Passive Earth Pressures Active earth pressures Active pressure is the condition in which the earth exerts a force on a retaining system and the members tend to move toward the excavation. Passive pressure is a condition in which the retaining system exerts a force on the soil.  When the wall moves away from the backfill, there is a decrease in the pressure on the wall and this decrease continues until a minimum value has reached after which their is no reduction in the pressure and the value will become constant. This kind of pressure is known as active earth pressure. Passive earth pressures When the wall moves towards the back fill, there is an increase in the pressure on the wall and this increase continues until a maximum value has reached after which their is no increase in the pressure and the value will become constant. This kind of pressure is known as passive earth pressure. All retaining walls are usually not placed on the ground surface on the front side but are l