Showing posts with the label Instrumentation

What are high beam splitter coatings?

What are high beam splitter coatings?  Basically, beam splitters are optical components that are used to split a certain amount of light into two separate beams. Splitters are classified according to how they are constructed. They can also be used to combine two different beams

What are highly reflective coatings?

What are highly reflective coatings? Originally high-reflective coatings were used to reduce light from lasers and other light sources while reflecting them. Therefore, technicians recommend that laser machines have highly reflective coating materials because the scatter of the laser beam can cause injury if the laser is pointed directly at the patient, for example, during laser eye surgery. In short, HR coatings are essential for laser machine effectiveness so that less laser power is used during application.

What are anti-reflection coatings?

What are anti-reflection coatings? Basically an anti-reflection coating, also known as an antiglare coating, is used to reduce reflections on the surface of lenses and other optical components. When reflection is reduced it improves better imaging because reflection reduces light. Therefore, instruments such as binoculars, cameras, microscopes and binoculars can use anti-reflective coatings. This is because reducing light reflection by eliminating stray light improves image contrast. An antiglare coating can also be used to eliminate reflections. For example, in the lenses of glasses, technicians can use an anti-reflective coating to ensure that the person wearing the glasses can be seen by others. Additionally, an antiglare coating can reduce the glare from the light or binoculars of a secret viewer's telescope.

What are the types of optics coating?

What are the types of optics coating? Basically optics are the most common types of coatings  Anti-reflection coatings Highly reflective coatings Filter coatings Beam splitter coatings

What is an Optical Coating?

What is an Optical Coating? Basically an optical coating is a thin layer of material that creates an interaction and effect between certain visual elements such as a lens or mirror and light. Understanding how optical coatings work requires understanding how light travels through transparent media. The layers used in this technology affect how the optic transmits light and reflects it. And the technology is useful for making glasses and camera lenses for people whose eyes are light sensitive. Materials used for this type of coating vary depending on their application. Examples of materials used for the coating include rare earth materials, oxides, and metals. Their thickness determines the effectiveness of the optics technology, the number of layers used and the difference in refractive index.

What is Buchholz Relay?

What is Buchholz Relay? Basically Buchholz relay is used to detect internal faults in oil filled transformers. And that oil is used as insulation for the transformer body. Buchholz Relay works on the principle of gas detection. Buchholz relays used in oil filled transformers are also known as safety devices.

What is IGBT?

What is IGBT? IGBT is basically a type of transistor. And there are three main types in the transistor family – BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor), FET (Field Effect Transistor), and IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). The IGBT is a more advanced type of transistor. As a standard construction of a transistor, it too has three terminals – gate, collector and emitter. When a voltage is applied to the gate, it opens and allows a current to flow between the collector and emitter. When the voltage is removed from the gate, it closes and blocks the flow of current between the collector and the emitter. Thus, an IGBT behaves like a switch; It closes when the gate is open and current flows and when it is closed. IGBT is a combination of BJT and FET. It has the gate function of FET and low saturation voltage/output characteristics of BJT. That is why you can see it in its name too; This is a combination of both FET (IG) and BJT (BT). It is able to handle large collector-emitter currents wi

What is feedback control system?

What is feedback control system? Basically a feedback control system consists of five components - input (set value), output (process variable), controlling process, sensing devices and actuating / control devices.

What is a Instrument Transformer?

What is a  Instrument Transformer? Instrument Transformers   Basically this Transformers used in conjunction with measuring instruments like current, voltage, power, frequency, power factor are called instrument transformers and it is used in AC system. And these transformers are used to provide isolation between the power circuit and the control circuit. These transformers are also used in conjunction with protective relays. Instrument transformers are of two types. they are, A current transformer measures high current and a potential transformer measures high voltage. Instrument transformers are also used with protective relays for power system protection. Commonly instrument transformers are used to step down AC system voltage and current. And this voltage and current level of the power system is very high. Designing measuring devices to measure such high levels of voltage and current is very difficult and expensive. The measuring instrument is generally designed for 5 A and 110 V.

What is Optical Fiber and it's types ?

What is Optical Fiber and it's types ?  Optical Fiber Basically an optical fiber is a thin strand of glass or plastic that acts as a transmission medium through which information is transmitted. And optical fiber is a dielectric waveguide that operates at optical frequencies (10^13 to 10^16 Hz) and transfers information in the form of light through the mechanism of total internal reflection. Also an optical fiber has a central core surrounded by a cladding layer. Types of optical fiber  Step index fibers, graded index fibers, single mode fibers, multimode fibers, glass, plastic clad fibers and all plastic fibers are basically common types of optical fibers. And the step index and graded index are based on the fiber refractive index profile. Single mode and multimode fiber is based on the number of modes. Glass, plastic clothing and all plastics are fiber based materials. Related Articles Step Index Fiber  Graded Index Optical Fiber Single Mode Fibers Multimode Fibers Glass Fibers 

What is Multi Mode Fiber?

What is Multi Mode Fiber?  Multi Mode Fiber  Basically multimode fiber, more than one mode can be transmitted through the fiber. Like multimode graded index fiber and multimode step index fiber. The core diameter of multi mode fiber is wide (>50µm) and the refractive index between core and cladding is large. Multimode fibers can be made using step index or graded index fibers, as the core is wider. And LED and LASER are used as optical sources. Multi-mode fibers are subject to signal distortion due to multimode dispersion and material dispersion. It has large dispersion and attenuation limits its application for short distance communication. These fibers are used in local area networks. And it is easy to insert light into these fibers and connect two fibers. Multimode fibers are relatively easy to fabricate and are not expensive.

What is Single Mode Fiber?

What is Single Mode Fiber? Single Mode Fibers  Basically single mode fibers have only one path for transmission i.e. only one mode can travel through it. And this core diameter is narrow (2 to 10µm). Single mode fibers refractive index difference between core and cladding is very small. Also single mode fibers are always step indexed because the core is narrow which cannot be graded indexed. Only lasers can be used as optical sources. Dispersion does not occur as there is no degradation of the signal during its propagation through the fiber. and are suitable for long distance communication due to its high data carrying capacity. And fabrication is very difficult to make expensive. It is very difficult to pass light between these fibers and connect two fibers.

What are Graded Index Optical Fiber ?

What are Graded Index Optical Fiber ? Graded Index Optical Fiber Basically the graded index fiber refractive index of the core is not constant. And this core refractive index changes as a function of radial distance from the center of the fiber. And graded index fiber is simply multimode graded index fiber. The graded index fiber ri is maximum along the axis of the core and decreases from the core to the cladding. And this diameter of core is about 50µm in multimode fiber. Graded index fiber means light rays are given a helical path to pass through the graded index fiber. The rays are named as Skew Rays. And the self-focusing effect reduces this fiber loss and pulse distortion. And the capacity to carry information increases.

What is the Step Index Optical Fiber ?

What is the Step Index Optical Fiber ?  Step Index Optical Fiber Basically a step index fiber in which the refractive index of the core is uniform throughout the length of the fiber. and step index The fiber refractive index undergoes an abrupt change (such as a step function) at the cladding boundary. And it has single mode as well as multimode step index fiber. And this diameter of the core is about 50 to 200µm in case of multimode fiber and 10µm in case of single mode fiber. The step index fiber ri of the cladding is slightly lower than that of the core. These fiber rays of light are given a path confined to the plane of the fiber core axis as they pass through the step index fiber. The rays are called meridional rays. Step index Fiber loss and pulse distortion are high Information carrying capacity is low.

What are All Plastic Optical Fibers?

What are All Plastic Optical Fibers? All Plastic Fibers  Basically all plastic fibers have a plastic core and cladding. And it reduces the need for a buffer jacket for plastic core and cladding fiber protection and has high loss and great mechanical strength. and are used for low-cost links of very short distances.

What are Plastic Clad Optical Fibers?

What are Plastic Clad Optical Fibers? Plastic Clad Fiber   Basically plastic clad fiber consists of a plastic cladding made of silicone rubber and a glass core made of silica. And these fibers exhibit low radiation damage and have efficiency as well as moderate damage. Also used for medium distance communication. And its mechanical strength is moderate.

What are Glass Optical Fibers?

What are Glass Optical Fibers? Glass fibers Basically in glass fibers, both the core and the cladding are made of glass containing silica or silicate. And it resists distortion at temperatures up to 1000˚C, thermal shock and extreme transparency. Also it has low losses and low mechanical strength. Commonly used for long distance communication due to low loss.

Working Principle of Flapper Nozzle

Working Principle of Flapper Nozzle Flapper Nozzle  Essentially, the flapper-nozzle is a fundamental component of pneumatic measurement, control and transmission systems, and the flapper-nozzle acts as a pneumatic secondary transducer, translating very small displacements into a pressure signal. It is a movable flat metal and is attached to the member whose displacement is to be detected. And it is placed in front of the nozzles in such a way as to cover or expose the nozzles and change the distance between them when moved. When the flapper is moved towards the nozzle, the distance between the nozzle and the flapper decreases. This increases the resistance to air escaping through the nozzle and also increases the pressure behind the nozzle. Once the flapper completely covers the nozzle, no air flows through the nozzle. Nozzle back pressure is maximum and same as supply air pressure. When the flapper is moved away from the nozzle, the distance between the nozzle and the flapper increase

Characteristics of Measurement

Characteristics of Measurement Essentially the instruments used for measurement have  characteristics such as accuracy, repeatability, sensitivity, display. Accuracy   Basically, accuracy is defined as the difference between the instrument's reading and its actual reading or measured value. and is expressed as a percentage of the top scale value regardless of where the scale reading is taken. Repeatability   The repeatability of an instrument means that the instrument will give the same reading on the scale regardless of how the measurement point is reached. It means fast or slow, high or low. If the instrument reads 49 instead of 50 on the upper scale, it should read the same on the downscale reading. If it reads 51 units, the error is called hysteresis, which is caused by frictional losses. Sensitivity   Sensitivity of an instrument is its ability to respond to a small change in the value being measured. This is the smallest change that will result in effective motion of the meas

What is HMI?

What is HMI?  Basically HMI is known as human machine interface and it allows human to give direction as well as receive feedback from PLC. The HMI screen displays various types of indications and these indications are used to identify problems in process or instrument status such as on, off, feedback error and feedback error.