Showing posts with the label electronic

What is Transformer Bushing?

What is Transformer Bushing? Basically a transformer is a device which is used to step up or step down the voltage as per requirement. Transformers are required in power transmission and generation stages, they involve high voltages. Since the transformer works at very high voltage, it is also necessary to take care that it functions properly without any leakage or damage. Now, it is worth noting that there is one very important factor in helping the transformer to function properly; That is its bushing. Without a bushing, it is not possible to operate the transformer in any high-voltage condition (usually in KV). A bushing is an electrical insulator that allows safe passage of electrical current. It is similar to any insulator surrounding the conductor, which helps prevent any untoward incident from occurring. A transformer consists of two windings - primary and secondary (HV and LV). It makes connections to external wires to carry electricity. Even though the transformer also include

What is Current Transformer?

What is Current Transformer? Basically a current transformer is a device that is surrounded by live phase wire in a three-phase system to measure the current flowing through it. As the name suggests, this is a type of transformer. A current transformer comes under the working analogy of a step-down transformer. A current transformer (CT) converts high voltage current flowing through its primary winding (phase wire) into low voltage current flowing through its secondary winding (internal ammeter). The meter will then automatically scale or calibrate internally to reflect the original value.

What is IGBT?

What is IGBT? IGBT is basically a type of transistor. And there are three main types in the transistor family – BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor), FET (Field Effect Transistor), and IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). The IGBT is a more advanced type of transistor. As a standard construction of a transistor, it too has three terminals – gate, collector and emitter. When a voltage is applied to the gate, it opens and allows a current to flow between the collector and emitter. When the voltage is removed from the gate, it closes and blocks the flow of current between the collector and the emitter. Thus, an IGBT behaves like a switch; It closes when the gate is open and current flows and when it is closed. IGBT is a combination of BJT and FET. It has the gate function of FET and low saturation voltage/output characteristics of BJT. That is why you can see it in its name too; This is a combination of both FET (IG) and BJT (BT). It is able to handle large collector-emitter currents wi

What is a wiring schedule?

What is a wiring schedule?  Basically the wiring schedule will specify the wire reference number, type, color, size and number of conductors, length and required amount of insulation stripping. And this is not a diagram but a reference to the conductors that were used for easy identification in the circuit. In complex devices, you'll also find a table of interconnections that gives the start and end reference points for each connection, as well as color, size, identification markings, and other important information.

What is a wiring diagram?

What is a wiring diagram? Basically a wiring diagram is a drawing that shows all the wiring between parts such as control or signal functions, power supply and earth connections, and unused leads and termination contacts. Also, the wiring diagram shows the interconnections between terminal posts, blocks, plugs, sockets and lead-throughs. This wiring diagram will contain details such as terminal identification numbers that enable us to wire the unit together. The parts in the wiring diagram are shown only in blocks with no indication of the size or shape of the components. But it will only show the terminal number or connection number in the component.

What is a circuit diagram?

What is a circuit diagram? Circuit diagrams basically show how electrical components are connected to each other and use symbols to represent electrical components. Lines represent the functional conductors or wires that connect them to each other. And the circuit diagram is derived from the block or functional diagram. It does not represent the exact size, shape or arrangement of the electrical components. Although you can wire up the assembly from the information in it. They usually show details of how electrical circuits work.

What is a voltmeter?

What is a voltmeter? Basically, voltmeters are standard items on switchboards and control panels. They are basically single-circuit elements so when three phases are to be indicated either three devices are used or one with a multipoint switch. A voltmeter is connected across the line and is high-impedance. The ranges of the voltmeter may be varied in series with high-value resistors; Such resistors are known as voltmeter multipliers. For high voltage, a potential transformer (PT) is connected to the main line called the primary and a voltmeter is connected to the secondary. Voltmeters are usually moving iron. Moving coil meters can also be used but in combination with rectifiers.

What is voltage?

What is voltage?  Basically voltage is also known as potential difference, electromotive force (EMF) and pressure of an electrical circuit. And it is measured with the help of voltmeter.

What is Current Transformer?

What is Current Transformer? Basically a current transformer is a device which is directly surrounded by phase wire in three-phase system, to measure the current flowing through it. As the name suggests, this is a type of transformer. A current transformer comes under the working similarity of a step-down transformer. A current transformer (CT) converts a high voltage current flowing through its primary winding (phase wire) into a low voltage current flowing through its secondary winding (internal ammeter). The meter will then automatically scale or calibrate internally to reflect the original value.

What is Bus-Coupler?

What is Bus-Coupler? A bus-coupler is basically a component that connects several bus bars together. And it has two uses. The bus coupler can be used to supply from the first bus bar by default. If it fails, it will disconnect from the first one and take supply from the second one. Here, the load will remain disconnected for a while. In this case, two bus bars will be isolated from each other by a bus coupler. And the bus coupler will connect both bus bars simultaneously. In case of failure of the first bus bar, the load is connected through the second bus bar. It will not stop the current even for a second. Thus, in any case, you can see that a bus coupler is used to combine multiple bus bars. So, the concept of bus coupler is simple. It can either be used to connect multiple bus bars at once or to connect them only one at a time; It depends on the current usage and how long the load can withstand the power outage.

What is a bus bar?

What is a bus bar? Basically a bus bar can be known as a group of conductor plates (three phases of R, Y, and B) which receives the main incoming power and distributes it to various outgoing requirements. The main incoming three-phase supply is fed to three plates of conductors. From these plates, various other smaller plates are distributed to panels or feeders which require three phase supply. It happens that you get a uniform connection and avoid a large connection to the main generator. You have only one incoming supply and can have multiple outgoing connections to the various feeders you need the supply.

What is electric field?

What is electric field?  Basically in an atom protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged. And each conducting atom has an electric field around it. This is due to the presence of these two factors. It is positively charged while negative charge is withdrawn. So, it can also be defined as the force around an electrically charged particle.

What is magnetic field?

What is magnetic field? A magnet basically has two poles and they are north and south. A magnet either attracts or repels. Also, if the north pole is placed around the south pole, it will attract and if the north pole is placed around the north pole, it will be repelled. The region around the magnet where the poles either attract or repel is called the magnetic field. Basically, in a magnet, the magnetic field is created either naturally as discussed earlier or also by a passing current. When an electric charge moves in space or on a conductor, its motion induces a magnetic field. Therefore, whenever a metallic object such as iron comes within the range of this magnetic field, the magnet will attract the iron towards it.

What is a Shell Type Transformer?

What is a Shell Type Transformer? Basically a shell type transformer is one in which the core of the transformer surrounds the windings. And in this type of transformer, the core surrounds the primary and secondary windings. Therefore, they are called shell type transformers. Both the windings are wound on the central limb of the core. As you can see, the circuit has two flux paths. The central organ carries the entire magnetic flux; and the other two side limbs carry half of the flow. HV and LV winding mounting is same as discussed earlier in core type transformer. In the second image below, the red winding is the primary and the green winding is the secondary.

What is a core type transformer?

What is a core type transformer? Basically a core type transformer is one in which primary and secondary windings surround the transformer core. And transformers have two types of windings basically primary and secondary. The voltage is transferred from the primary to the secondary winding through the magnetic flux. And the core is the layer of metal that conducts the magnetic field and can also be called the main body of the transformer. So, in this type of transformer, windings surround the core. Hence, they are called core type transformers. The part which is twisted is also known as the limb. Both the windings are mounted on separate limbs of the core. And core type transformers have only single flux path in the circuit. Also, it is worth noting that there are two types of windings on each of the primary and secondary - low voltage (LV) and high voltage (HV). In the image below, green color is LV winding and red color is HV winding. The LV winding is placed near the core and the HV

How does solar energy work?

How does solar energy work? Frame, glass, front adhesive film, solar cell, back adhesive film, back sheet and junction box are the primary components of a complete panel. The main component here is the solar cell. It is also known as photovoltaic cell. When solar energy hits it, it generates electricity; This is called Photovoltaic Effect. This single cell is not enough to generate a lot of power. So, many cells are used together to form a panel. Additional layers of glass and adhesive act as protection for the solar cells. Solar cells are made of silicon. It is basically a semiconductor that is the cause of electricity generation. A solar cell is made up of two silicon layers. There is a positive charging layer called the p-type layer and the other is a negative charging layer called the n-type layer. The n-type layer can donate electrons and this layer resists light. The p-type layer can accept electrons and since they gain extra electrons, the area created for such electrons is call

What are transparent solar panels?

What are transparent solar panels? Basically, conventional solar energy conversion uses common solar panels (solar photovoltaic panels). However, transparent solar panels use plain glass as the panel. And since glass is transparent, it is coated and made with special materials to allow the photovoltaic effect to pass through. This keeps the glass transparent and converts solar energy into electricity. So, you can imagine that every piece of glass, from window frames to automobile windows, can be used as solar panels. Therefore, no additional land space or roof is required to install solar panels. A building with this type of glass windows will generate electricity automatically. So, you can literally turn any sheet of glass or window into a photovoltaic cell. All light is made up of electromagnetic radiation spread across a spectrum of wavelengths, each containing energy that can potentially be extracted by a solar cell. However, the human eye can detect only a fraction of the waveleng

What is the relationship between electric current and voltage?

What is the relationship between electric current and voltage? Basically voltage is directly proportional to current (V = I * R) but in case of continuous power sourcing we find that any change in the amount of supplied current affects the supplied voltage. This means that if a transformer is supplying constant power (P) to an electrical system, changing the electrical load (motors, actuators) will affect the supplied voltage (P = V * I). So, in case of high load, we get system voltage drop and in case of low load, system voltage increases as P = V*I.

What is an industrial robot?

What is an industrial robot? An industrial robot is basically a general-purpose, programmable machine with anthropomorphic or human-like characteristics. And designed for multi-functional operations to move materials, parts, tools or special equipment through variable programmed movements for the performance of various tasks. Generally speaking, robots are designed and controlled by a computer or similar device. The movements of the robot are controlled by a controller with the help of a program supervised by a computer. Thus, the programming feature allows robots to be used for various industrial operations.

What are the types of voltage references?

What are the types of voltage references? Types of voltage references is  Shunt voltage reference Series voltage reference Bandgap voltage reference Shunt voltage reference Basically shunt voltage references are two-terminal types designed to operate in parallel with their load over a specific current range. When not in use, the shunt removes enough current to achieve the correct output voltage while reducing the reference voltage drop. Under load, however, it will automatically decrease the sink current to maintain a constant throughput. And as a result, the shunt voltage reference will effectively regulate the output voltage by changing its sink current to accommodate load fluctuations. In practice, this approach is functionally equivalent to the one used in Zener diodes. Shunt voltage references in a small and simple PCB footprint demonstrate very good stability and accuracy over a wide range of variable current and load conditions. Moreover, as a negative voltage reference, a shunt