Showing posts from February, 2023

What is feedback control system?

What is feedback control system? Basically a feedback control system consists of five components - input (set value), output (process variable), controlling process, sensing devices and actuating / control devices.

What is a ruptured disc?

What is a ruptured disc? Basically the rupture disc is a device used to prevent the vessel from breaking due to increased pressure. It consists of a thin metal diaphragm that explodes when the vessel's pressure rises. Rupture discs are usually designed to reduce to 1.5 times the vessel's maximum allowable working pressure. A disc assembly consists of a thin, circular membrane usually made of metal, plastic, or graphite that is firmly clamped into a disc holder. It works on the pressure relief principle. Rupture discs are actuated by inlet static pressure and are designed to function by bursting a pressure-loaded disc. The disc may be made of metal or carbon graphite and placed in a suitable holder..

What is Current Transformer?

What is Current Transformer? Basically a current transformer is a device which is directly surrounded by phase wire in three-phase system, to measure the current flowing through it. As the name suggests, this is a type of transformer. A current transformer comes under the working similarity of a step-down transformer. A current transformer (CT) converts a high voltage current flowing through its primary winding (phase wire) into a low voltage current flowing through its secondary winding (internal ammeter). The meter will then automatically scale or calibrate internally to reflect the original value.

What is Bus-Coupler?

What is Bus-Coupler? A bus-coupler is basically a component that connects several bus bars together. And it has two uses. The bus coupler can be used to supply from the first bus bar by default. If it fails, it will disconnect from the first one and take supply from the second one. Here, the load will remain disconnected for a while. In this case, two bus bars will be isolated from each other by a bus coupler. And the bus coupler will connect both bus bars simultaneously. In case of failure of the first bus bar, the load is connected through the second bus bar. It will not stop the current even for a second. Thus, in any case, you can see that a bus coupler is used to combine multiple bus bars. So, the concept of bus coupler is simple. It can either be used to connect multiple bus bars at once or to connect them only one at a time; It depends on the current usage and how long the load can withstand the power outage.

What is a bus bar?

What is a bus bar? Basically a bus bar can be known as a group of conductor plates (three phases of R, Y, and B) which receives the main incoming power and distributes it to various outgoing requirements. The main incoming three-phase supply is fed to three plates of conductors. From these plates, various other smaller plates are distributed to panels or feeders which require three phase supply. It happens that you get a uniform connection and avoid a large connection to the main generator. You have only one incoming supply and can have multiple outgoing connections to the various feeders you need the supply.

What is relative humidity?

What is relative humidity?  Relative basically means relating to something. It is the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere and how much water vapor the air can hold at that particular temperature. And this is the percentage of moisture in the air. But this relationship can be observed only in a certain range of temperature.

What is absolute humidity?

What is absolute humidity?  Basically absolute means real value. And it is the amount of water present in a given mass of air at a given temperature. Absolute humidity (AH) is obtained from the following simple formula.  AH = water vapor/air ratio.

What is hydrostatic pressure ?

What is hydrostatic pressure ? Essentially, hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to the depth of the fluid, while absolute pressure is the hydrostatic pressure combined with the atmospheric pressure. Thus, hydrostatic pressure is not atmospheric pressure but absolute pressure.

What is a proportional valve?

What is a proportional valve? Basically defines a valve with a spool in a proportional body design. And it is a continuously variable, electrically modulated, directional control valve with more than 3% center overlap. The function of a proportional valve is to produce a smooth and continuous variation in flow or pressure proportional to the electrical input signal. Connecting the electronics to these valves must be done accurately. These valves allow infinite spool positions and result in infinitely adjustable flow volumes. Infinite spool positioning can be achieved using stroke-controlled actuators that use pneumatic cylinders with proportional valves and solenoids to control the direction and speed of motion. In the hydraulic industry, the term proportional valve refers to a specific type of valve that is very specific to a servo valve. Variable positioning of the valve allows spool design with metering notches for flow control, speed control as well as directional control in one va

What is a Servo Valve?

What is a Servo Valve? A servo valve essentially defines a valve design with a bushing spool assembly that has high-precision metering edges. And basically, the name servo valve is related to the word servomechanism, which means that the valve is constantly monitored to control its movement. The name proportional describes any action where only one parameter varies somewhat in relation to the other. It is a continuously variable, electrically modulated, directional control valve with less than 3% center overlap. Servo valves are used in conjunction with closed-loop systems and advanced electronics. Servo valves operate with greater accuracy, very high repeatability, minimal hysteresis and high-frequency response. But servo valves are more expensive. A servo valve or pressure control valve is generally used to control the pressure in a circuit through a directional valve in some cases. A load cell or pressure transducer detects the force or torque. A servo amplifier analyzes the feedbac

What is a rotary pump?

What is a rotary pump?  Essentially a circulating pump will continuously transfer hot water in the loop while it is running. It simply takes water and discharges it at high pressure to the required points, and returns it to the line system for proper circulation. A pump has inlet and outlet openings. Both of these are in the same line with each other.  

What are the types of submersible pumps?

What are the types of submersible pumps?  Types of submersible pumps is Deep well pump  Bottom suction pump  Stainless steel pump  Oil filled pump  Submersible utility pumps  Water cooler pump  Mixed and axial flow pumps

What is electric field?

What is electric field?  Basically in an atom protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged. And each conducting atom has an electric field around it. This is due to the presence of these two factors. It is positively charged while negative charge is withdrawn. So, it can also be defined as the force around an electrically charged particle.

What is a submersible pump?

What is a submersible pump? Basically it is a type of centrifugal pump. Instead of pulling water like normal cases, a submersible pump pushes water. It consists of a hermetically sealed motor attached to the pump body which helps in pushing the liquid to the surface. The impeller plates used in this pump are of backward curved type, which helps in pushing the water with great force. Its motor converts rotary motion into kinetic energy, and diffuser blades convert this kinetic energy into pressure energy.

What is magnetic field?

What is magnetic field? A magnet basically has two poles and they are north and south. A magnet either attracts or repels. Also, if the north pole is placed around the south pole, it will attract and if the north pole is placed around the north pole, it will be repelled. The region around the magnet where the poles either attract or repel is called the magnetic field. Basically, in a magnet, the magnetic field is created either naturally as discussed earlier or also by a passing current. When an electric charge moves in space or on a conductor, its motion induces a magnetic field. Therefore, whenever a metallic object such as iron comes within the range of this magnetic field, the magnet will attract the iron towards it.

What is a pilot or air operated valve?

What is a pilot or air operated valve?  A pilot valve is basically the same as a solenoid valve, however, instead of an electric signal, an air pressure signal will be used to open or close the spool.

What are the benefits of smart sensors?

What are the benefits of smart sensors? Advantages of smart sensors is  Improve process performance Minimize maintenance by predicting equipment failure Log data for historic records and regulatory compliance Notify of anomalies that affect process quality Self-Test, Self-Calibration and Self-Diagnosis Multi-sensing capabilities High accuracy Improve processing performance

What are the different types of smart sensors?

What are the different types of smart sensors?  There are basically five main types of smart sensors used in industrial automation. And they are  Level sensors  Temperature sensors  Pressure sensors  Infrared sensors  Proximity sensors

How Smart Sensors Work?

How Smart Sensors Work? Basically, a smart sensor consists of 5 basic components which are the base sensor, power supply, microprocessor, memory and communication module. A base sensor is a common sensor responsible for detecting physical quantities. A power supply is to supply power to the computing resource and perhaps to the sensor base. A microprocessor is a computing component, which enables the sensor to perform some data calculations in order to measure quantities and take action based on these analyses. Memory is dedicated to storing measured values and calculated data, and also stores the software logic that controls how the sensor handles this data. The communication module is the one that transmits and receives data between sensors and external devices over the same network or the Internet. Essentially a raw base sensor used to provide sensing capability, it is designed to measure physical quantities and produce analog signals. These analog signals need to be processed befor

What is Smart Sensor?

What is Smart Sensor? Basically, a smart sensor is a device that can measure a physical quantity and give an output related to the measured value just like a normal sensor, but it also has the ability to analyze some data from this measured quantity using built-in computing resources and use this data to take some action to increase the efficiency of the automation process. Use it. And smart sensors can also provide more accurate measurements, thanks to built-in computing resources that filter out any signal noise and convert the measured signal into a usable digital form without the need for transducers like normal sensors. Smart sensors have built-in communication capabilities that enable them to transmit data over the Internet or similar networks and give them the ability to communicate with external devices, which is the main reason why smart sensors are such important components in the Internet of Things.

What is Normal Sensor?

What is Normal Sensor? Basically a normal sensor is a device capable of sensing physical quantities like temperature, pressure, flow etc. and gives an output correlated to that quantity. And this output can either be an on/off signal, i.e., a switching signal, such as a proximity sensor, or it can be an analog representation of a continuously measured physical quantity, usually in the form of millivolts or some change in resistance value, such as thermocouples or pressure sensors. A common sensor by itself will not be sufficient to be able to use this measured value in an automation system. Instead, a transducer is introduced to enable converting these measured millivolts or resistance into a usable format such as 4 to 20 mA. Then you will need a computing capability like a PLC to use these measured values in some calculations and actions for automation processes.

What is a controller?

What is a controller? Basically the controller is used to control the entire process by getting the feedback from the sensors and modulating the actuators accordingly. And the actuators work automatically by receiving commands from the controller. The most popular type of controller is the PLC. 

What is an Actuator?

What is an Actuator? Basically the actuator follows the sensor feedback and let's say you are controlling the process temperature. For example, room temperature should be maintained using chilled water. In this case, an actuator would be a modulating valve to control the flow of cooling water supply. But, real room temperature feedback will be taken by the sensor. Based on the feedback, the valve will open or close accordingly to maintain the process. Includes actuators such as valves, heaters and drives.

What is Quick Exhaust Valve (QEV)?

What is Quick Exhaust Valve (QEV)?  Essentially, the quick exhaust valve is a three-way valve that operates primarily on the differential pressure between the inlet and outlet ports. And this valve finds application where a fast stroke time is required or where air needs to be exhausted quickly from the cylinder. Quick exhaust valves are widely used in actuators and pneumatic cylinders for quick exhaust and stroking applications.

What are the benefits of HMI?

What are the benefits of HMI? Basically the benefits of HMI are  Enhanced visibility Increased functionality Reduced downtime Enhanced visibility With the ability to display all the important data related to your process in a single dashboard, the HMI gives operators enhanced visibility into their processes at all times. It helps improve productivity. Increased functionality Because the HMI provides real-time data of your process, operators can use this data to monitor production and adjust process parameters in real-time to meet changing demand. Data captured from HMI can be analyzed to help identify areas of improvement for your processes. Reduced downtime With the alarms and alerts provided by the HMI, operators can better monitor their process performance and respond quickly to failures reducing downtime. Also analyzing the data provided by the HMI can help identify areas where future problems may occur and take appropriate action.

What is HMI?

What is HMI? Basically HMI stands for Human-Machine Interface. And it is simply a device that allows communication and data exchange between a user or operator and a machine or process. Most often an HMI is a touch screen but a simple keypad that gives orders to a process is also an HMI, the main concept being that with an HMI you can either give instructions to the process, get information about the process, or both. And HMI basically has two types Keypad HMI and Touchscreen HMI. Also HMI is widely used in industries but you can also find HMI everywhere around you, simple example of HMI is ATM and ATM is the HMI you use to withdraw your money. In industrial applications, the major functions of HMI are real-time information exchange between operators and production processes. HMI screens display data, provide visual feedback, and execute operational commands through input devices such as touch screens and keyboards.

What is the Sequential Function Chart (SFC) PLC programming language?

What is the Sequential Function Chart (SFC) PLC programming language? Basically Sequential Function Chart (SFC) is another PLC programming language that uses graphical blocks for logic, but in SFC each block is called a step and your code will continue to execute the instructions within it until the transition condition is met. Allows logic to proceed to the next step. This concept is similar to a flow chart, hence the word chart in SFC. The decision to move to the next step of your SFC logic can be based on timing, a particular step in the process, or the physical state of the equipment. Unlike traditional flow charts, SFCs can have multiple paths (branches), and you can use branches to execute multiple steps at once. Some advantages of Sequential Function Charts are useful for large processes you can break down into major steps, easy online debugging, you can see exactly at which point your logic stopped, much faster to design your process. And some of the disadvantages of sequential

What is the Instruction List (IL) PLC programming language?

What is the Instruction List (IL) PLC programming language? Basically an Instruction List (IL) is another textual language that you can use to program your PLC, as the name suggests; You can write your reasoning in this language as a list of instructions. Each command is written on a new line. IL is a low-level language and resembles assembly. You can add any comments you want at the end of each one. Some of the advantages of Instruction List (IL) are very useful for compact code, very useful for time-critical code, very fast and consumes less memory. Some of the disadvantages of instruction lists (IL) are that they are slightly more limited in terms of structuring code, are more difficult to debug and resolve errors, are more prone to run-time errors, and can lead to infinite loops.