Showing posts from October, 2021

Dusk to Dawn Lighting Switch or Lighting Switch from Sunset to Sunrise

  Dusk to Dawn Lighting Switch or   Lighting Switch from Sunset to Sunrise This sunset to sunrise lighting switch or Dusk to Dawn Lighting Switch is designed to control the light illuminated on the LDR sensor. The resistance of the LDR sensor changes with the change in intensity of light falling on LDR. This sensor output is given to IC 555 timer connected in bistable mode. The output of the IC 555 timer is used to control the prompting of load through a TRIAC. Hence, this circuit switches on the load in the sunset and switches off the load in the sun rise automatically. The sunset to sunrise lighting switch or Dusk to Dawn Lighting Switch project is used where the light will continue on only from sunrise to sunset (dusk to dawn). Nowadays, the electricity cost is very high and it is advisable to use electricity carefully. The applications of this project mainly include where more electricity is required in the night time like highways, complexes, colleges, parks, and industries. The p

Instrumentation Used For Nuclear Reactor

  Instrumentation Used For Nuclear Reactor Nuclear reactor Require extremely reliable Instrumentation for the control and monitoring of the various complex operating systems   instrumentations to measuring the neutron fission, the neutron dose, the flux, the reactor fission rate, and temperature are discussed. Here instrumentations contain Micro-Me-gas detectors, noise thermometer, tissue equivalent proportional counter, high-temperature thermocouples, liquid scintillation detector, spectrometers, optical fiber sensors, Uranium Fission chamber, Plutonium Fission chamber, Self-Powered Neutron Detector, Ionization chamber, Self-Powered Gamma Detector, Differential calorimeter, Gamma Thermometer, and Optical Fiber Sensors, and so forth.

LDR Based light Intensity Control for Street Lights

  LDR Based light Intensity Control for Street Lights In the system, generally the lighting up of highways is done through High-intensity discharge lamps. Because, the energy consumption of these lamps is high. This project uses an LEDs to overcome the drawbacks of High-intensity discharge lamps. This project demonstrates the usage of light emitting diodes as a light source. These lights consumes low power and its life is more as compared to High-intensity discharge lamps.A light depending resistor is used to detect the light. The resistance of the LDR drastically reduces according to the daylight. A bunch of LEDs are used to make a street light. The microcontroller comprises programmable instructions that controls the light intensity based on the Pulse width modulation signals generated. The light intensity is kept high during the peak hours, and as the traffic on the highways tend to decrease in late nights: and the light intensity also decreases till morning. Finally, the street lig

ARM microcontroller

  ARM microcontroller 1 . What is ARM microcontroller? Answer:  The ARM microcontroller is considered by many as the most popular microcontroller existing in the world of the digital embedded system. Many industries prefer to make use of ARM microcontrollers because of the many exciting features. With ARM microcontroller, such industries can easily implement high performing products. The ARM microcontroller is cost-sensitive and its applications range to sensors, wireless networking, automotive body system, and others. 2. Where ARM chips are used? Answer:  Arm processors or chips are used in different electronic applications or devices. Devices, where the ARM chips are used, include tablets, multimedia players, smartphones, wearables, and other mobile devices. Arm chips need little transistors because of their instruction set. The use of ARM chips to the devices mentioned above and those not mentioned will keep on increasing because of the small size, little consumable power, and reduc

what is the difference between transmitter and converter ?

  what is the difference between transmitter and converter ? Answer: Transmitter includes transducer(like strain gauge, capacitance sensor, etc) which converts one form of energy into a readable signal which might be 4-20mA, then transmitter itself will transmit that signal to controller, on the over hand, converter converts one form of signal into another form, for example 3-15psi into 4-20mA.

Screw Turbine Working Animation

Screw Turbine Working Animation

Operational Amplifier Fundamentals And Effect Of Feedback In Amplifier Multiple Choice Questions And Answers

  Operational Amplifier Fundamentals And Effect Of Feedback In Amplifier Multiple Choice Questions And Answers 1. Negative feedback in an amplifier a) Reduces gain b) Increase frequency &phase distortion c) Reduces bandwidth d) Increases noise Answer: Reduces gain 2. A differential amplifier has a differential gain of 20,000 . CMRR=80 dB. The common mode gain is given by a) 2 b) 1 c) 1/2 d) 0 Answer: 2 3. The approximate input impedance of the OPAMP circuit which has Ri=10k, Rf=100k, RL=10k a) ∞ b)120k c)110k d)10k Answer: 10k 4. An amplifier using an opamp with slew rate SR=1v/╬╝sec has a gain of 40db.if this amplifier has to faithfully amplify sinusoidal signals from dc to 20 KHz without introducing any slew-rate induced distortion, then the input signal level must not exceed a) 795mV  b) 395mV c) 795 mV  d) 39.5mV Answer: 795 mV   5. An ideal OP-AMP is an ideal a) Current controlled Current source  b) Current controlled voltage source c) Voltage controlled voltage source  d

PIC microcontroller

PIC microcontroller  1. What is a PIC microcontroller? Answer:  PIC microcontroller is known as peripheral interface controller and currently PIC microcontroller is widely used for industrial purpose due to low power consumption, high performance capability and easy availability and PIC microcontroller is very small microcontroller. 2. What is the use of PIC microcontroller? Answer:  There are different uses of the peripheral interface controller. Some of the applications are video games, peripherals, audio accessories and many more. Since this circuit is programmable, it can be used for many functions like timer and to control the production line.

Top 8051 Microcontroller Interview Questions And Answers

  Top 8051 Microcontroller Interview Questions And Answers      1. What is 8051 Microcontroller ? Answer: The Intel 8051 microcontroller is one of the most popular general-purpose microcontrollers in use today. It is an 8-bit family of microcontroller developed by Intel in the year 1981. This microcontroller was also referred to as “system on a chip” because it has 128 bytes of RAM, 4Kbytes of ROM, 2 Timers, 1 Serial port, and four ports on a single chip. 8051 microcontroller allows CPU to work on 8bits of data at a time.n case the data is larger than 8 bits then it has to be broken into parts so that the CPU can process conveniently. 2. What are applications of 8051 microcontrollers? Answer: The constant growth in information technology has provided many benefits of making use of a microcontroller, integrated circuits, embedded chips, microprocessors, etc. With these technologies, work is done faster and complexity is reduced. The 88051 microcontrollers are used in electronic and

Annubar flow meter advantages and disadvantages

  Annubar flow meter An annubar is very similar to a pitot tube. The difference is that there is more than one hole into the pressure measuring chambers. The pressure in the high-pressure chamber represents an average of the velocity across the pipe. Annubars are more accurate than pitots as they are not as position sensitive or as sensitive to the velocity profile of the fluid. There may be a single port or multiple tapping ports on the opposite side of the bar to measure the low static pressure in the downstream region. The difference between the total and static pressures is effectively a measure of the fluid velocity head, which together with the pipe area enables the volumetric flowrate to be determined. Annubar flow meter Principle The  Annubar primary flow element is a device used to measure the flow of a liquid, gas or steam fluid that flows through a pipe. It enables flow measurement by creating a differential pressure (DP) that is proportional to the square of the velocity of

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) Interview Question and Answers

  Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) Interview Question and Answers 1. What Is Plc? Answer:  PLC means Programmable Logic Controller. It is a class of industrially hardened devices that provides hardware interface for input sensors and output control element. The field I/p include element like limit switches, sensors, push button and the final control elements like actuator,  solenoid/control valves, drives, hooters etc. PLC Senses the input through I/P modules, Processes the logic through CPU and memory and gives output through output module. 2. Applications Of Plc? Answer:  PLC can be used in almost all industrial application solutions right from small machine to large manufacturing plants. Even it caters applications of redundant systems at critical process plants. 3. Explain The Role Of Plc In Automation ? Answer:  PLC plays most important role in automation. All the monitoring as well as the control actions are taken by PLCs. P

Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Mechanism (PMMC)

  Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Mechanism (PMMC)  In PMMC meter or (D’Arsonval) meter or galvanometer all are the same instrument, a  coil of fine wire is suspended in a magnetic field produced by permanent magnet. According to the fundamental law of electromagnetic force, the coil will rotate in the magnetic field when it carries an electric current by electromagnetic (EM) torque effect. A pointer which attached the movable coil will deflect according to the amount of current to be measured which applied to the coil. The (EM) torque is counterbalance by the mechanical torque of control springs attached to the movable coil also. When the torques are balanced the moving coil will stopped and its angular deflection represent the amount of electrical current to be measured against a fixed reference, called a scale. If the permanent magnet field is uniform and the spring linear, then the pointer deflection is also linear.

Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) working principle, advantages, disadvantages, applications and projects

  Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)  What is a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) ? A Light Dependent Resistor is also known as a photoresistor or LDR. Light Dependent Resistor are also called as photoconductors, photoconductive cells or simply photocells. Light Dependent Resistor is a device whose resistivity is a function of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Hence, Light Dependent Resistor are light-sensitive devices.  They are made up of semiconductor materials that have high resistance. There are many different symbols used to indicate a photoresistor or LDR, one of the most commonly used symbol is shown in the figure. The arrow indicates light falling on it.