Showing posts from 2020


  Switches Instrumentation Switches used in measurement and control systems. The purpose of a switch is to turn on and off with varying process conditions. What is mean by Switch? An electromechanical device used to connect or disconnect a circuit is known as switch. Switch divide in two parts Pole Throw Pole - what the switch armature is connected to throw Throw - the closed position of the switch Basic Switch Function   Open and close circuit: Open (no connection) Closed (connection) Switch Contacts: Normally-open (NO)  Normally-closed (NC) Basic Switch Types Single Pole, Single Throw (SPST) Single Pole, Double Throw (SPDT) Double Pole, Single Throw (DPST)   Double Pole, Double Throw (DPDT) Types of switches Toggle switch  Push button Drum switch Limit switch Temperature switch Pressure switch Rocker Switch Level switch Flow switch Slide switch DIP switch Rotary switch Thumbwheel switch Selector switch


Analyzer Analyzer is a device or tool and basically the analyzer analyzes the data of chemical analysis. And commonly analyzers are available in two types first is analog analyzer and second is digital analyzer. Instrumentation Analyst Instrumentation analyzers are basically used to improve instrument maintenance and instrumentation analyzers identify faults quickly. This analyzer detects systematic errors. Instrument Analyzer Analyzing and Comparing Continuous Data Basically an instrumentation analyzer analyzes real time data and tech readings. What is an Instrumentation Analyzer? An instrumentation analyzer is an analyzer and measures errors in real time and continuously analyzes the data. The instrumentation analyzer analyzes various products like oxygen, dissolved oxygen co2, h2s, CEMS, SWAS, HCDP, humidity and etc. Types of Analyzer Automatic Analyzer Bus Analyst Differential Analyzer Electron microprobe Lexical Analyzer Logic Analyst Network Analyst Protocol Analyzer (Packet Snif

Control Valves

Control Valves A control valve is a valve and basically a control valve is used to control the fluid flow by changing the shape of the valve. And is basically the final control element known as the control valve and is used to regulate or control the fluid flow of the pipe or flow channel. and controls or regulates fluid pressure, temperature, and fluid volume. A control valve is a power operated instrument and basically a control valve controls the fluid flow rate in a process control system. Basics of Control Valves Valves are used for thousands of purposes, from simple and mundane tasks like turning on the water in a kitchen sink to important and difficult tasks like controlling the flow of water through a nuclear reactor. Valves are basically important for controlling the flow of liquids and gases in daily life. Some valves are used to isolate the system, shut off system pressure, and/or for vacuum maintenance and repair. Others are used to reverse or throttle the flow in the syste

Vibration Measuring Devices

Vibration Measurement Vibration Measuring Devices Instruments that measure vibration are also called vibrometers. And generally vibration measuring devices measure or sense vibration. Vibration is the normal oscillatory motion of a body and basically this motion is harmonic or complex. A vibration measuring instrument typically measures the particle or body amplitude, frequency, and phase. Vibration Vibration is the motion of a body, and motion is a constant like a vine as a dynamic imbalance. And commonly known as vibration is a state of body which moves back and forth, right and left, up and down and randomly in frequency. Types of vibration measurement Basically there are two types of vibration measurement first contact type and second non contact type 1. Contact Type Contact type vibration measuring instrument means direct contact with moving or vibrating body and simple contact type instruments are compact in size. An example of a contact type instrument is an accelerometer. 2. No

Pressure Measuring Devices

Pressure Measuring Devices Pressure  Pressure is the force acting per unit area and it is expressed mathematically as pressure equal to the force divided by the area and the unit of pressure is newton per meter squared and newton per meter squared is also called pascal. And common types of pressure are atmospheric pressure, absolute pressure, vacuum pressure, gauge pressure. Common units of pressure are pascal, kilogram per square centimeter, bar, pound per square inch or psi, mmh2o, mmhg, inh2o, inhg. P = Force(F)/ Area(A) , pascal (N/m²) Pressure measuring devices Pressure measuring instruments are barometer, manometer, pressure tube, diaphragm pressure gauge 1. Barometer A barometer is a device that measures atmospheric pressure and common types of barometers are digital barometers, water barometers and mercury barometers. 1. Digital Barometer Digital barometer is the most common barometer for measuring pressure and Digital barometer is used for micro chip or IC to measure air press

Temperature Measuring Devices

Temperature Measuring Devices In this article I am discussing temperature, temperature measurement and temperature measuring devices such as thermometers, thermocouples, resistance thermometers, infrared sensors, bimetallic devices, change-of-state sensors, silicon diodes. Temperature Temperature is an objective measure of how hot or cold an object is. It can be measured with a thermometer or calorimeter. It is a means of determining the internal energy contained in a system. The units of temperature are Celsius (°C), Kelvin (K) and Fahrenheit (°F).  Temperature measurement Temperature is the unit used to measure the heat of any body Temperature indicates whether a body is hot or cold. Celsius (°C), Kelvin (K) and Fahrenheit (°F) are the SI units for measuring temperature. Devices used to measure temperature are thermometers, thermocouples, resistive temperature measuring devices, infrared sensors, bimetallic devices, change-of-state sensors, silicon diodes. Conversion from of temperat

Level Measuring Devices

Level Measurement Level measurement is the detection or measurement of the level of a liquid or other solid liquid. Two general types of measurement are direct measurement and indirect measurement. Direct level measurement, also known as mechanical level measurement, and direct level measurement, which measures the height of a liquid or other liquid fluid, and dip sticks and lead lines, sight glasses, chains, and float gauges are commonly used instruments. Indirect level measurement is also known as approximate or approximate method and basically this type of level measurement is level measured with a remote location. And commonly used instruments for indirect level measurement are sonar level measurement, ultrasonic level measurement, pressure gauge, pure mechanism, differential pressure meter, displacement type level measurement.  Introduction to level measurement A level measurement is the linear distance between the top surface of a liquid or solid and a predetermined reference poi

Safety Instrumented systems (SIS)

Safety Instrumented systems (SIS) A safety instrumented system consists of sensors, logic solvers, and final control elements that are all separate from the basic process control system elements, and the logic solver directs the final control elements to the state required to provide a safe state if the input indicates an abnormal condition. Safety instrumented systems are used to monitor the status of plant values ​​and parameters within operational limits and when a risk situation occurs, they should trigger an alarm and also put the plant in a safe state or shutdown state. Safety instrumented systems are control systems that detect inherently dangerous conditions and bring the process to a safe state. A Safety Instrumented System (SIS) protects the environment from harm caused by specified hazardous conditions. When applied to a specific situation SIS is generally viewed as a separate control system that operates independently of any other controls or individuals. A safety instrumen

distributed Control System (DCS)

  Distributed Control System (DCS)  What is a Distributed Control System ? A distributed control system, also known as DSC, is a computer control system for a process plant, typically with multiple control loops, in which autonomous controllers are distributed throughout the system. A distributed control system integrates the PLC and the process controller of the process line into a coordinated, interactive system. Distributed Control System (DSC) Architecture Block Diagram Level 0 : Field Level This layer includes the basic field devices like sensors, transmitters etc. Field level components are directly linked to the process. Level 1 : Direct Process Control This level handles various functions as Data Acquisition Data Check Plant Monitoring Open and Closed loop Control Reporting Level 2 : Plant Supervisory Control This level handles various functions as Plant Performance Monitoring Plant Coordination Optimal Process Control Adaptive Control Failure Detections Level 3 : Production Sc

Programmable Logic Controllers

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) A PLC is known as a programmable logic controller and is an industrial computer that connects a number of I/O modules. And are commonly available in various I/O modules such as Micro PLC, Nano PLC, Medium PLC and Large PLC, basically Nano PLC has some 100 I/O modules and Large PLC has more than 5000 I/O modules. Also PLCs are available in compact type and modular type and compact type PLC has fixed size I/O and all the modules included basically compact type PLC does not increase the number of I/O modules but modular PLC has modified these I/O modules as required. A PLC has a separate module and is placed  in a rack or box type. Commonly PLC with SMPS and without SMPS. SMPS is a switch mode power supply and is also known as switching or switch mode power supply. Basically SMPS is used in PLC to convert AC supply to DC supply. And it converts 230 volt AC supply to 24 volt DC supply so PLC works on DC as well as AC supply.  And the plc response time i

Flow Meter

Flow meter A flow meter is basically a device used to measure or indicate the flow of a liquid, gas or any fluid moving through a pipe. A flow meter basically measures the amount of steam, liquid and gas flowing through a pipe, and there are several types of flow meters or flow sensors that measure the flow rate of a liquid or gas.  A flow meter measures the flow of a gas or liquid through a closed or open pipe. Basically flow is the amount of liquid or gas passing through a pipe or system and the formula for measuring flow is Q=V*A where Q is the flow rate, V is the flow velocity and A is the pipe area. And the unit of flow measurement is liter/minute, m3/hour, cut/second, kg/second, ton/hour, gallon/minute. flow Flow is the flow of a gas or liquid through a closed or open pipe. And basically flow is the amount of liquid/gas passing through the system. The unit of flow is liter/minute, kg/second, gallon/minute, tans/hour, m3/hour. flow rate Flow rate is equal to the velocity of flow i

Instrumentation and control engineering

Instrumentation and control engineering Instrumentation and control engineering is the study of process variable measurements and controllers. Instrumentation and Control Engineering is a combination of two disciplines Instrumentation Engineering and Control Engineering. Instrumentation and control engineering consisting of field instrument (PLC, DCS, SCADA, sensor, Actuator etc.), control system, automatic equipment or equipment used in industries. Instrumentation & control engineering basically aims to automate industry and improve product quality, stability, reliability and reduce labor costs or human error. Also ICE deals with safety systems like FAS (Fire Alarm System), SIS (Safety Instrumented System), ESD System (Emergency Shutdown System) in power plant. Basically, i&c engineer jobs are available in oil and gas, petrochemical, biomedical, food and beverage, manufacturing industries. Basically the job of Instrumentation and Control Engineer is to design and control the s